Theoretical Approaches to International Development - Essay Example

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International development strategies have been faced with criticism because their approaches to alleviate povertyare not producing results.International development parameters are believed to be major causes of differences in analysing development…
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Theoretical Approaches to International Development
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"Theoretical Approaches to International Development"

Download file to see previous pages Although the world bodies on development argue that poverty has been reduced, the rates of under-development are still too high in many countries. World Bank argue that world population living in poverty has reduced tremendously in the past as a result of implementation of development policies on poor countries. This implies that if their data is correct, the world has attained one of the millennium development goals of reducing poverty levels by 50%. This review of international development approaches has considered three articles by Onis and Senses, Leftwich, and Kiely. These authors have analysed various features of development and approaches in measuring equality. This review covers a summary of key points raised by the authors, analysis of their strengths and weaknesses and comment based on these authors’ articles. Onis and Senses in their article, “Rethinking the Emerging Post-Washington Consensus,” have analysed the outcomes of new Post Washington consensus as a development debate. The authors have also analysed the new development orthodoxy that advocated for a new development model based on the fact that individualisation should be primary, outward orientation, liberalisation of market, and state contradiction. According to them, the state is viewed as the cause of retarded development. States are viewed as causing delay in development through many sectors they have created. These sectors make development processes longer (Onis and Senses, 2005, p. 264). Neoliberal orthodoxy was supported by ‘new political economy’ model which was opposed to sectors claiming that they were supporting majority interests. In essence, ‘new political economy’ model fostered individualism. Later, there were challenges that were noted in development by the use of neoliberal orthodoxy that led to the rise of Post-Washington Consensus. This consensus emphasised the importance of the state in development. It represented critical analysis of former paradigms in development i.e. national developmentalism and neoliberalism. This new approach recognises the place of the state in development but also emphasises the need for the state to avoid failures in the market. Post-Washington Consensus is challenged by its narrow look of issues related to market (Onis and Senses, 2005, p. 279). The agenda of this consensus is not adopted by Bretton Woods institutions like IMF. Onis and Senses conclude that there still are inequalities that are resulting in poverty even with Post-Washington Consensus (Onis and Senses, 2005, p. 287). Onis and Sense’s article has analysed various development models distinguishing their efficiency. However, their argument does not show explicitly the most favourable methods towards development. They cited different challenges of each models but never came with a recommendation of one. Kiely’s article is an evaluation of whether there has been any significant reduction in poverty levels. Kiely criticises the World Bank’s report that population living in absolute poverty were reduced by 400 million from 1.4billion in 1980. Other researchers indicate that poverty levels were reduced to 18% by the year 2000 from 46% in 1980. His work is a criticism of the definition of absolute poverty, which World Bank defines as Purchasing Power Parity. He claims that this method was just aimed at creating optimism of having achieved reduction in poverty level. Kiely criticises the method of measuring poverty level by Purchasing Power Parity saying that prices of commodities are likely to change in different ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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