Although the entire Qing lineage and their political and economic policies are very interesting, this paper "China's Qing Dynasty and its Collapse" will deal primarily with the fall of this great empire. The paper mainly focuses on the reasons and factors of the fall…
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The Qing dynasty was started by a Manchu tribe, the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan, from northeast of China (“Qing Dynasty”). The first three rulers had peaceful and prosperous reign and the administrative system used by the Qing rulers had mostly been inherited from the Ming dynasty with minor modifications. The military setup under the Qing was noteworthy. The army which was owned by the ruler was divided into separate units that had individual banners and troops. The civil servants were sometimes chosen from the banner men.The Qing dynasty was able to preserve its identity although it reigned over the Chinese. The rulers would go back to Manchuria during summertime and would speak their language. They even prohibited inter-marriages between Manchus and Chinese. The Manchu troops and Chinese troops were delegated with duties separately. Several other changes in social behavior such as men shaving heads and wearing queues were initiated. However, the peace during the early part of their rule allowed for growth and development in all areas such as public works. The taxation structure was light, and the benevolent rulers would even reduce taxes during famine. This led to a spurt in the growth of trade and commerce. Art and learning were patronized. Porcelain painting was revived with new shades of colors, and European influence could be observed in the samples of that era.Under Qianlong’s rule, China had the largest territory ever. Signs of internal disturbances were becoming evident....
The impoverished masses rose in the form of popular uprisings, and though they were effectively handled, the causes for the uprisings remained unresolved. Some of these reasons were to provide the fuel for future uprisings such as that of the Taiping rebellion in the 1850s and 1860s, which would prove to be a big blow to the Qing dynasty. However, the disintegration of the empire did not seem evident till the mid nineteenth century. The major reasons for the decline of the Qing dynasty can be put under several heads. 1 - Backward Imperialism The last few rulers of the Qing dynasty were trapped in backward traditions and did not keep up with technological advancements of other nations in the contemporary context. They thought of themselves as divine rulers of a grand nation and looked at European inventions such as canons and artillery with suspicion. Hence, they failed to upgrade their war equipment and lacked modern infrastructure as well. In comparison to the Self Strengthening Movement in China (1861-1895), the Meiji Restoration in Japan was very successful and this gave the Japanese the role of a formidable opponent during the late nineteenth century. This even resulted in losing the First Sino-Japanese war in 1894-95. 2 - Foreign invasion Another reason why the Qing dynasty began to fail was that of the strong European colonial influences. Britain was interested in trade with China for tea and silk. However, with nothing else to import the British started opium trade with the Chinese. This proved to be a disaster for the people of China since many got addicted to opium and began producing it in land plots meant for food grains. Also, the high exchange rates of opium put a
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