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The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy: Presidential Doctrines Author Institution Abstract This paper discusses the Eisenhower doctrine on national security and focuses on the use of nukes and spooks to prevent Communist or other radical takeovers. The paper begins with a summary of a Middle East situation, which required diplomatic efforts by the Eisenhower administration…
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Download file to see previous pages Eisenhower 1953-1961: Use of Nukes and Spooks to Prevent Communist or Other Radical Takeovers When Dwight Eisenhower was inaugurated as the 34th American president in 1953, he adequately prepared matters pertaining to foreign affairs. In his approach to foreign policy, Eisenhower used a doctrine, which stated use of nukes and spooks to prevent Communists or other radical takeovers. The intense rivalries of Middle East brought Eisenhower into a confrontation with France and Great Britain. The 1956 Suez crisis laid the troubles of the Western powers in dealing with Nasser. Nasser was a nationalist president of Egypt; he purchased weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia, and sought financial aid from the U.S. to construct the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. The Eisenhower government was ready to offer the assistance, but in the course of the negotiations, Nasser recognized the People’s Republic of China (Combs, 2008). As a result, Eisenhower’s administration stopped the negotiations concerning the aid; Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal as a form of retaliation. The French, Israel and Britain concluded to take military action. The three countries did not consult or even inform Eisenhower before the launch of attacks into the Sinai Peninsula by Israel. This outraged Eisenhower and considered that the attacks would strengthen Nasser. Eisenhower speedily condemned the attacks and employed U.S. economic and diplomatic power to compel all three countries to withdraw their forces. After these events, Eisenhower designed a new program, called the Eisenhower Doctrine. The Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957 pledged U.S. economic and military aid to Middle Eastern countries menaced by communist aggression. However, the actual menace to United States concerns in the Middle East was not communism but nationalism, as Nasser’s wild popularity among the majority of Arab nations demonstrated (Hutchings, 1997). In 1958, the difficulties brought by Nasser influenced Eisenhower’s resolution to send Marines to Lebanon. The domestic political struggle had made Lebanon unstable. In July 1958, what emerged to be pro-Nasser forces confiscated power in Iraq. To guard Lebanon against the same menace, U.S. Marines were deployed to put down a revolution against pro-Western government. The armed forces remained for three months in Lebanon. American diplomats made a significant contribution by participating in negotiations, which permitted the Lebanese groups to solve their political disputes (Watson, Gleek & Grillo, 2003). According to Combs (2008), in Southern Asia, instead of armed forces, Eisenhower sent U.S. arms and dollars. Eisenhower offered Marshall Aid to the French. In 1946, French had started a war to recapture control over their colonial ownership of Indochina. Indochina comprised the current countries of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. By 1954, the Eisenhower administration had disbursed over 75 percent of the French expenditures of war. The French was incapable to defeat the nationalist force, Vietminh, which was under the direction of the Communist Ho Chi Minh. Eisenhower’s “New look” to national security policy in 1953 main elements included maintaining the strength of the American economy while still building adequate strength to prosecute the Cold War. The second element included reliance on nuclear weapons to discourage ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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