The word “Federalism” signifies the distribution of power between the central and the constituent units of the government of a country. This term is generally used for describing the political scenario prevailing in America. …
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The distribution of power among the central and the states is derived from the written constitution. Both forms of the government rule directly over the people. It is also sometimes seen as a compromise between the extreme concentration of power and loose confederation of independent states for governing a variety of people living in a large territory. Similarities and Dissimilarities with India and USA’s Federal Form of Government USA being the largest democratic countries in the world became the Federal republic state in the year 1789 by promulgating its constitution and India on the other hand in the year 1950 by launching its constitution. Smaller states by forming a union got affiliated with the strong central government that came to be called as Federal government in USA and central government in India. Both the countries have a written form of constitution. Secondly, USA has got its bill of rights to protect the fundamental rights of the people and India has guaranteed the fundamental rights in the articles 14 to 34 in part iii. Thirdly both the countries have Federal forms of government at the centre. The law enacted by the centre is much more superior to the law passed by the state. Both the countries have three basic divisions of labor and power in the Federal system of government; they are known as executive, legislature and judiciary. The executive governs the country, legislature enacts law, and the judiciary administers justice. Both the countries have bicameral form of legislature. In USA president is the chief executive head whereas in India prime minister is the head. USA has got the House of Senate and the House of Representatives as the upper and lower house of legislature while India has Rajya sabha and Loksabha as the upper and lower houses. A well organized judiciary is present in both the countries as apex and Supreme Court. Lastly, both the countries have a threat to democracies so the divisions of power are somehow or the other checked by the other houses of power. Firstly, USA’s constitution is very rigid and has undergone amendment only 27 times but the Indian constitution on the other hand is very voluminous and flexible has been amended 94 times. In USA all the states have their own constitution while in India all the states follow the Indian constitution. Secondly, USA has the presidential form of government but India has the parliamentary form of government. USA follows the bi-party system whereas India has got multi party system. President of USA can hold his office for only two terms whereas in India nothing as such rule is there. In India, Loksabha or the lower house is much more powerful while in USA the upper house i.e., house of senate is more powerful. A senate member is directly elected whereas in India, Rajyasabha members are indirectly elected. Last but not the least, USA has got the advanced judicial system while India is rapidly developing in its judicial system (Lingam) Possible Reforms for the US Government Adopting from India: India has always followed and encouraged in peace keeping operations but on the other hand USA has tried to maintain peace with the help of machinery and men. India has shown real patience to its rival countries by providing timely help to those in need. It had also undergone friendship agreement with its enemy countries like China & Pakistan, timely help to Bangladesh when Pakistan tried to overtook it. These are the policies which the US government may adopt from India (Schaffer, 73; Kesselman, Krieger and Joseph, 286) Possible Reforms for the Indian Government Adopting from the US Technology transfer is what India can learn from US Federal government. It is quite evident from the history
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Towards this direction, in the study of LaCroix (2010) emphasis is given on ‘the Constitution Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia’ (LaCroix 1), an event through which the political history of USA began. It was in the summer of that year (1787) that the first signs of federalism – as a political and economic concept – were identified in USA.
The judiciary includes the Supreme Courts, Court of Appeal and the district courts. The legislature includes the Congress, House of Representatives and House of Senate. The executive branch includes the President. The system works in a manner that there is no branch of government that can operate independently without the supervision of the other branches (Brannen & Lawrence, 2005).
Institutional power structure of a system of government is based on how the constitutional allocation of power to office holder is patterned. In addition, how relationship and power sharing affect the different public servants in their different positional capacity.
s recent work, Patterns of Democracy, Lijphart (1999) supports ‘consensus’ democracy, or an adjusted variation of consociational democracy, as the perfect type of governance for any state, not only extremely divided states. In contrast to the widely held wisdom that
Though there are some powers which are with the central government only, such as money printing, war declaration, defense strategies and immigration policies. The other powers and policies which are related to run the
This is because individual state governments feel that the national government has too much power and goes beyond its boundaries on most issues. Although the conflicts between the national government and individual state governments
Wachendorfer defines Federalism as a principle by which the powers of the government are divided so that the national and regional governments are each co-ordinate and independent (Wachendorfer, 2005, pp. XIV-XV). The majority of the people agree that it is an association of states, which has common purposes, and the member states retain a certain amount of their independence.
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