The Cold War was a period of intense fear and uncertainty about the future (May, 2008). Much of the world was united by a common foe in the USSR, and the threat of nuclear war was a prominent and driving concern…
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Following the war, there was a strong need for states to re-establish themselves on the world stage, especially in terms of foreign policy. The collapse of the Soviet Union meant that a new world order was necessary, as there was no longer the bipolarity of two warring superpowers (Ikenberry, 1996). Instead, the new world could be considered in one of two ways. Either unipolar, with the United States representing the centre of the worlds power and the only superpower, or multipolar, where there are many different centres of power, including Japan, Germany and China (Krauthammer, 1990). Many of the previously reliable reference points from which different states developed their foreign policy were gone, and thus the need to determine new areas of reference and new policies, were essential (Scott, 1998). There was no longer a common enemy of the Russians or a single unifying threat. Communism was also quickly collapsing, with the Berlin Wall being brought down around a year after the Cold War finished. This represented a large change worldwide and one that had to be contended with in policy decisions for each government.
The end of the Cold War resulted in a dramatic fall in the prevalence of communism worldwide and this caused a significant shift in the balance of power (Hopmann, 1994). As nations attempted to build new alliances and to secure current ones, foreign policy became one of the most important factors on the agendas of different nations. The German nation suffered from the limitation of stigmatism following the Second World War and this influenced their foreign policy....
The German nation suffered from the limitation of stigmatism following the Second World War and this influenced their foreign policy. France was not subject to the same limitation and as a consequence had more freedom in their decisions regarding foreign policy. Following the Cold War, it was unknown whether multiple world powers would emerge, or whether the United States would remain as the sole superpower. From the German perspective, there was the idea that the Germany could emerge to be one of the new superpowers, or Europe in general . One of the biggest changes that the end of the Cold War brought about for Germany and for Europe in general was the bringing down of the Berlin Wall. Like the end of the Cold War, this signified the collapse of the Soviet power . This lifted the threat of war that had been present in Europe for more than 40 years . Unification of East and West Germany occurred within a year of the end of the Cold War, and the country moved its focus back to the international environment . One important issue for Germany was to decide whether they would be involved in nuclear weapons. This is a reflection of traditional concerns about security, and additionally may be related to a desire to be independent and to develop a distinctive ‘German’ identity . Germany was faced with an additional problem. It was not long after the Second World War, and much of the world was still wary about the country. As a consequence, their foreign policy had to take this into account. They could not focus on security to such an extent that it made them appear as a threat to other countries. Germany’s foreign policy focused on remaining a civilian entity, rather than building military might, and consequently, did not
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The conclusion from this study states that in a nutshell, US spying operations and the seeking of the services of Nazis did more harm than good to the country back home. Although the impacts were preferred at their inception, by the then American leaders, they failed to contribute effectively toward the strengths of the country on a number of national issues.
Each had a highly contrasted sense of policy from the other, in terms of how the United States should take a stand towards the Cold War and what would be the most favorable policy for their victory and the Soviets’ defeat.
Therefore, freedom can influence the American policies, by enabling the country to intervene in other countries where freedom of the people is in jeopardy. This often leads to US-led military action against dictatorial governments across the world, if diplomacy fails to guarantee the masses of their freedom.
During the term of US President Richard Nixon, the Vietnam War was already heating up and getting more out of hand. The situation in this scenario showed that Soviet Russia and the People’s Republic of China were giving military aid to the forces of Communist North Vietnam, while the United States provided military aid to the democratic South Vietnam.
US Post Cold War Interventionism Foreign Policy
The interventionism foreign policy that United States adopted in the post Cold War era has left the country and citizens more insecure than ever before.
The country has spent billions of dollars, which unfortunately has not translated into tangible sense of security for American interests within and outside the country’s borders.
The author states that many contemporary scholars have tried to explain how international affairs are conducted and what foreign policies should be concerned with, but their views are very divergent and a policy maker has to decide the guiding theory or view. Three main competing paradigms: realism, liberalism and constructivism have different strands.
Many in the West called this a victory with many praising U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his aggressive, military policy towards the Soviet Union. Francis Fukuyama called it the end of history.1 Others looked to the future with U.S. President George H. W.Bush speaking about a 'new world order'
After World War II US felt threatened by the expansionist policy of the Soviet Union. The rivalry between the two super powers and extended to many areas like ideology, military coalitions, espionage, nuclear arms race, proxy wars and massive defense spending.
In fact, US foreign policy currently face numerous opportunities and challenges. Furthermore, it is crucial to comprehend all of
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