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September 11, 2001 Attacks - Research Paper Example

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September 11, 2001 Attacks Course Institution Date September 11, 2001 Attacks Introduction For years to come, many will remember where they were and what they were doing on September 11, 2001 a day that is known as one of the “most shocking” days in US history (Traugott et al 2002, p…
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September 11, 2001 Attacks
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Download file to see previous pages Only after the towers collapsed and news of a similar attack on the Pentagon and an attempt on the White House did the magnitude of the events of September 11, 2001 begin to come into focus. A survey of the damages that would follow would inform of the severity of the September 11 2001 attacks. Those damages would reach beyond the immediate vicinity of the attacks and change our lives in many ways. This research studies analyzes the actual and general damages and consequences of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Actual Damages Al Qaeda’s terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 2001 claimed the lives of almost 3000 persons and caused the area’s economy up to US$83 billion directly and indirectly in losses (Okuyama & Chang, 2011). The damages to New York City were particularly far-reaching since New York City represents the financial center of the US. In addition to property destruction, South Manhattan, is home to New York City’s government and international commerce. As a result of the attacks, the government and commercial activities were at a complete halt for weeks to come. Office buildings nearby were empty and New York’s subway system came to a complete halt. Thousands of New York residents living beyond Canal Street could not return home. New York’s schools and bridges were closed down (Tucker, 2004). For the entire country and for most of the world, the airline industry suffered the greatest losses. Airports were shut down on September 11 with passengers stranded near and far, putting airlines to the expense of housing passengers. Formal claims by the loved-ones of victims who died in the three crashes resulted in unprecedented insurance and litigation expenses for the airline industry. Airport security also cost the airline industry millions in implementation and administration expenses (Tucker, 2004). With buildings destroyed, transportation interruption and business closures, New York City “experienced massive job losses” (Tucker, 2004, p. 401). The damages to the Pentagon were less extensive but shocking all the same because the attack on the Pentagon symbolized an attack on the US as a whole. On the morning of September 11, 2001, a commercial airline deliberately crashed into the ground floor of the Pentagon claiming the lives of 65 passengers and 125 Pentagon occupants (Bangash, 2006). The ensuing fire caused serious but reparable damages to the building. Engineers have claimed that the strong reinforced columns of the Pentagon mitigated the actual damages (Bangash, 2006). The direct costs of searching for Osama bin Laden and infiltrating terror cells are immeasurable and are costs that will burden the US for years to come (Tucker, 2004). Thus the economic damages directly and indirectly resulting from the September 11, 2001 attacks are difficult to quantify. Thus one of the long lasting consequences of the September 11, 2001 attacks is the realization that economic loss resulting from traumatic events are not only difficult to quantify but difficult to minimize (Jonkman et al, 2003). General Damages For the purpose of this research study, general damages refer to damages that are not specific and generally not quantifiable in terms of dollars and cents. These kinds of damages are better understood as collateral or consequential damages. It has been established that many persons who survived the attacks and witnessed the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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