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English colonization on the indigenous peoples of the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries - Research Paper Example

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English colonization on the indigenous peoples of the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries History and Political Science Teacher Name 01 July 2011 Looking back at the history there are many evils, which humans have committed in the name of religion, peace, love, patriotism and many other overtly beautiful terms…
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English colonization on the indigenous peoples of the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries
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Download file to see previous pages In ancient times the concept of colony is found in Greek city states. According to Toynbee apart from Athens and Sparta, all the Greek city states established their colonies on different parts. Greek city states developed colonies in order to fulfill the needs of their growing population1. Modern era of colonialism is normally associated with the discovery of America in 1492 by Columbus. Spain established its colonies in the New World and shortly afterwards other European countries followed the suit. The fall of Spain gave place to England and France to fight for the new found world along with already known world of India and Africa. In this fight between the two European powers, England prevailed. English colonies were established worldwide and they boasted that sun never set on the British Empire. American history begins with the clash of Europeans and Native American people. The above statement is true for modern times, which ignores the past of New World. Archeology has revealed the old world of America but normally it is ignored and least discussed. For current purpose the focus will be on the 16th and 17th centuries. The Native Americans, who first came into contact with Europeans, had their culture and values. They used to speak some 300 to 350 distinct languages and different ways of living. The Aztecs and Incas were two great empires of this New World and their remains testify the greatness achieved by these empires. These native people first faced Spanish settlers. The sheer power and brute force humbled the indigenous population and this was the method, which was to be used by later colonial powers. English settlers tried their luck at the East and there the indigenous population despite its variation lived in similar ways. They depended on agriculture, which was done by female population. Indigenous population did not keep herds of domestic animals and Male population used to hunt and fish. They used to live in family groups but loyal to larger kin and clan. There used to be one chief, who ruled by consent. The first major impact of colonialism on indigenous population was epidemic diseases. The life style of local population was different as they never kept herds and never lived with animals. On the other hand Europeans and Asian used to live near their domestic animals. The diseases, which were spread in the local population, resulted in the death of countless people. Mann says that "what happened after Columbus was like a thousand kudzus everywhere." "Throughout the hemisphere," he wrote, "ecosystems cracked and heaved like winter ice."2 Estimates of the population of the Americas at the time Columbus arrived have varied enormously. Some have argued that existing estimates of a high pre-Columbian indigenous population are rooted in a bias against aspects of Western civilization and/or Christianity. The indigenous population in 1492 was not necessarily at a high point, and may have already been in decline. Indigenous populations in most areas of the Americas reached a low point by the early twentieth century, and in a number of cases started to climb again. Native Americans suffered profoundly because of their remoteness from the rest of the world. Europe, Africa, and Asia had been trading knowledge and technologies for centuries. Societies on all three continents had learned to use iron and kept herds of domestic ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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