June 21, 2011 The term “cold war” was introduced by Winston Churchill during his speech at Fulton (USA), March 5, 1946. That speech (the Iron Curtain speech) was recognized as the symbol of the beginning of the Cold War…
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Third, the world quickly turned into polarized and bipolar. Fourth, two superpowers appeared in the world with military and economic power which gave them a significant advantage over the others. Plus, the interests of Western countries in different parts of the globe began to come up against the interests of the Soviet Union. The new political conditions, formed after World War II, were quickly understood by Churchill, who announced the new realia and called them the Cold War1. The defeat of such powerful monsters as Germany and Japan testified that the balance of power in the world was changed. The Allied forces of the Four Powers - the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain and France occupied the territory of Germany and Austria in accordance with the decisions of the Potsdam Conference. The political influence of the Soviet Union extended to Poland, part of Germany, occupied by Soviet forces, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Romania. Though the country was exhausted by war, it badly needed to recover economic and human resources, it still had the most powerful and experienced army of about 11 million soldiers2. On the other hand, the U.S. became the dominant global power after the Second World War, which has enormous economic, air, sea and nuclear power. As a result of the effective strategy the United States increased the gross national product by 1.7 times (excluding inflation) during the war and lost only 300 thousand soldiers. The U.S. dollar became the most stable currency and New York - the largest financial market in the world. The country quickly overcame inflation, raised wages and had the world’s highest productivity. Economic power of the United States, its industrial and financial expansion, contributed to the fact that the United States got the role of global hegemon3. Growing distrust among the former Allies led to the fact that the countries of Western Europe and the U.S. joined forces against the USSR. The Soviet Union, in an effort to protect its borders, created a kind of a buffer of the countries which formed pro-Soviet government after the war. Thus, the world was divided into two camps: capitalist and socialist. Both established the so-called systems of collective security - military blocs. On 4 April 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty was signed and the world saw a new military organization - NATO, which included the U.S., Canada and Western Europe. In May, 1955, the Warsaw Pact was signed as a countermeasure. It included (that year) Albania (later, in 1968, it denounced the pact), Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Romania, USSR, Czechoslovakia. The polarization of the world was over4. The created coalitions, led by their leaders, began to struggle for influence in third world countries. One of the most memorable results of the Cold War is Arms Race Its start was related to atomic weapons. In 1945 the United States was the only nuclear power in the world. Hiroshima and Nagasaki got “informed” about that. That strategic superiority fostered the U.S. military begin to build a variety of plans of pre-emptive strikes on the Soviet Union. But the American monopoly on nuclear weapons remained only four years. In 1949 the USSR tested its first atomic bomb. This event was a real shock to the Western world and an important milestone of the Cold War. So, any global wars, like in Orwell’s 1984, became very dangerous for all and unnecessary for the ruling regimes as undermined their
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In essence, the war can be described as the persistent state of military and political tension between the two states. The Soviet Union and its associates were branded as the Eastern bloc while the United States and their allies were referred to as the Western bloc (Leffler, 2008).
The fear of nuclear escalation did not allow the two economies to indulge into an active war therefore; this war is known as Cold War. This war is different from the other wars because it was not an active war and it was fought through propagandas, military clashes, economic clashes and diplomatic bargaining.
However, the most worrying issue was that of the nuclear weapons available to both countries which if used would have caused equal destruction to both countries. After the World War II it was seen that the United States and Russia underwent a competition in the field of economics, race and politics to gain superiority in the world.
They were involved in high profile proxy wars where they supported rival against each other in locations such as Korea and Vietnam. Causes The war was the result of the clashing between capitalism and communism which at the moment were two opposing world views.
The war can be described as the persistent military state and political tension amongst the two states (Leffler, 2008). The Soviet Union and its associates branded the Eastern bloc while the United States and their allies referred to as the Western bloc. The cold war was the tension that existed between the Western and Eastern blocs.
In between,the threat of a nuclear war was forever hanging like Damocles' sword and came almost to a head when the Soviets positioned missiles across Florida in Cuba and in retaliation US blockaded Atlantic Ocean to prevent the Russians from bringing in more missiles to the Fidel Castro-controlled Cuba (Ask.Com1).
One of the main motivations for all sides concerned within the international arena, was the continuing nuclear armament build up that had both sides concerned about a potential crisis situation. The horrors of the Vietnam War had convinced world leaders that a dtente was necessary to divert an unforeseen conflict that could not end well for any nation.
The liberals believe in the democratic peace theory and hold the view that democracies do not create wars, but all solve problems amicably. Thus according to liberals the issue is not security or war, but economic prosperity. The liberals believe in the institution of nuclear non-proliferation through mutual cooperation among the states.
It was “Cold” in that the two sides never directly engaged in armed conflict with each other, but was still certainly a war in that both sides engaged in a wide variety of war-like activities, including massing huge amounts of