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The development of human civilization is one of the important topics in the study of history. The paper is aimed to discuss and to analyze the early periods in the development of human civilization specifically the Mesopotamian, Near Eastern, Hebrew, Greek and Roman civilizations…
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Download file to see previous pages The development of human civilization is one of the important topics in the study of history. The paper is aimed to discuss and to analyze the early periods in the development of human civilization specifically the Mesopotamian, Near Eastern, Hebrew, Greek and Roman civilizations. This will be accomplished through the presentation of the contributions and features as well as the comparative analysis of each period in history included in the study. Historical View Mesopotamia was included in first civilizations with the people of the Western Asia and North Africa. The said period was referred to as the emergence of civilization. Mesopotamia was the present Southern Iraq known to be the place where the human civilization started specifically based on the fertile source of livelihood that the large rivers Tigris and Euphrates offered. It included the modern-day northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran and also known as the most influential land that ruled the Bronze Age through the leadership of Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires. The people of Mesopotamia were known to have established social structure and organized states. They also have their own political, military and religious cultures. In terms, of language and writing, the identity of Mesopotamia was well established and known in the said period (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006, p.4). Through the course of history, other surrounding nations and empires grew and became known. The term Near East had been applied to the region that included the Asia Minor (areas of Turkey, Armenia and Georgia), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Cyprus, Israel, Palestinian territories and other parts of Mesopotamia. Egypt was also included in certain references as well as other parts of Africa and Saudi Arabia. The said question on the exact territory referred to as the Near East can be attributed to the geographical basis of description, e.g. the bodies of water which served as the main source of nourishment. The Ancient Near East was located in the Fertile Crescent which with water sources such as the Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea and the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (p.10). The Hebrew was another influential culture during the onset of human civilization. Hebrews are known to be the children of Israel. Due to the rise of organized society and the establishment of the different institutions in the society, contributions of different nations had been based on different areas and disciplines. The most important contribution of the Hebrews was monotheism, which is the religious belief in only one God. The main religion of the Hebrews which was Judaism was a monotheistic religion. This became a significant influence to both Christianity and Islam (p.21). Greece was another established nation with great influence and contributions to the human civilization. The uniqueness of the culture of the Greeks can be attributed to the extraordinary geography and territorial land of their country which was basically separated by mountainous areas. Above the conflicts of each community on their fight to maintain independence, the established culture of each community can be considered as one of the most important contributions of the Greek nation. Due to the early development of the different institutions within the society, Greece had been considered as the nation where the advancement of the modern era began (p.75). Rome can be considered as the most advanced in terms of power and influence during the early history of the human civilization. The Roman Empire had ruled for seven hundred years. Such capability can be attributed to the exceptional organization in the social structure of the nation. But it is important to consider that the most important characteristic in the Roman culture was influence of the Greeks. This is in terms of the culture, arts, politics, and other institutions in the society (p.105). Analysis In the study of the history of human ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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