Racism was so much deep rooted in an American’s heart that the enactments of anti-slavery laws and the relevant amendments in the US Constitution were merely to redirect a racial mind to find alternatives of white superiority over the Black…
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Racism was so much deep rooted in an American’s heart that the enactments of anti-slavery laws and the relevant amendments in the US Constitution were merely to redirect a racial mind to find alternatives of white superiority over the Black. Indeed the amended Constitution provided the legal safeguard to the Black, barring the practice of slavery at the state level as well as, to the extent the state could interfere into the public affairs. But it could do nothing to bring about the changes in the culture and the society that intrinsically nourished the racial hostility against their former slaves. Forced by the Constitution and laws, the Americans, especially the Southern States could not but embrace their former slaves, always whispering into their ears, “You are a black and you must feel it” (Haws 34). This act of reminding the Black that they were inferior to the White and subjects to the White Grace was being done perfectly by Black Codes, Segregation and the Jim Crow Laws. The “separate but equal” policy in the South is emblematic of the Whites’ failure to assimilate the minor black community into the mainstream of the society. Reconstruction: the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments The racial Segregation and the Jim Crow laws, in a single phrase the “separate policy” of the south was essentially the South’s reaction to the 13th, 14th and the 15th constitutional Amendments during the Reconstruction in the post Civil War Period. Reconstruction’s primary goals were to establish the Black rights by withering out Slavery and to reintegrate the South with the nation. But the Southerners took it as a Northern insult aggravating the injury of the Civil War. The Reconstruction started with President Lincoln’s affirmative actions for a race-blind, equal and reunited America. While Lincoln followed a more moderate course to establish black people’s right and to reunite the South, the Radical Republicans “opposed it on the ground that Lincoln reconstruction plan had freed the slaves without paying much attention to establishing their socio-political, economic and other rights” (Stampp 78). What the North feared the most was that the Government should play a more active role in introducing the people of races to the newly imposed freedom through educational, economic and other sector developments. As a result, by passing the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864 Republican dominated Congress declare that Southern States should be run by military governors and, Secession and Slavery would be outlawed with the consent of the fifty percent of a state’s voters. Eventually the Congress also passed “the 13th Amendment and established the Freedmen’s Bureau in order to provide the formers slaves and black communities with the opportunities of education, employment, medical service, and economic facilities” (Carter 67). With the reelection of the Democrats in 1968, the Oval Office under Johnson’s Presidency followed the same path that Lincoln started immediately after the Civil War. But President Johnson’s lack of foresight and wholeheartedness severely affected Reconstruction. Eventually, the Congress voted for the 14th Amendment of the US constitution to provide legal safeguard to Black people’s civil right in 1866 and the 15th Amendment to protect the black’s right to vote in 1870. But along the passage of time, the reconstruction zeal began to wane. Indeed the different political scandal, corruption of the reconstructed governments, economic aftermaths, etc aggravated the waning of Reconstruction. The South’s Response to the 13th Amendment: Black Codes To the North’s surprise, the South began to impose unofficial and legislative restrictions on the black’s rights. Both theoretically and legally by the 13th Amendment of the
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He was the first African-American ever invited to visit the White House. However, this move evoked considerable outrage from the Southern whites. They regarded President’s invitation to a black as a serious breach of racial etiquettes. A member of the United States Senate, Benjamin Tillman, even threatened open violence by saying that, “Now that Roosevelt has eaten with that nigger Washington, we shall have to kill a thousand niggers to get them back to their places.” On the other hand, Northern newspapers applauded and anticipated the invitation by the President.
An example of such is the Jim Crow Laws. Jim Crow was the name of the racial social group system which existed mostly in the Southern and Border States in America between 1877 and mid 1960’s. These were laws formed against blacks in the society. Under Jim Crow Laws, African Americans were relegated to the state of second class citizens, and this is the way of life that they were supposed to follow.
As at the time of this difference, the Northern States underwent rapid periods of industrialization and required labors to work in the industries. The Southern States on the other hand continued to practice plantation farming with the main crop being cotton.
Thus, during the Reconstruction, the word Jim Crow became synonymous with the racial system which prevailed primarily, but not exclusively to southern and border states of America between 1877 and the mid 1960s. It is not merely some rigid anti-black laws but it has become a way of life, where the African Americans have been treated as second class citizens by a “government sanctioned racial oppression and segregation, rules and customs” (What was Jim Crow?
African Americans were highly indebted and they could only access small loans which were not enough to carry out their economic expansion unlike the white who were able to access large loans as well as government grants.
States and other people do not have any right to infringe on other individual’s capability to peaceful existence. Wars have been fought and blood has been spilled all in the name of equality, fraternity and liberty. The great French Revolution, the orange, velvet
Laws were passed in an attempt to “keep the black man down” due to fear along with the widespread belief that black were inferior to whites and should “know their place” in society. This series of repressive legal tactics known as Jim Crow
This essay aims at presenting an argument challenging the assentation made by the patriarch of the Duck Dynasty family in 2013 which reflected that the Blacks” were not mistreated during the Jim Crow era; that “the Blacks” were “singing and happy” during Jim Crow and that “the Blacks” were not mistreated during Jim Crow.
When the ruling on Brown v. Board of Education was being made, about 17 southern states alongside the District of Columbia prompted their public schools to permit racial segregation. This was materialized despite the fact that both the black and white schools were required to be “separate but equal” as provided by law and Supreme Court orders of 1896.
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