The bond spread or yield spread is the difference between two debt measuring instruments such as a high-risk bond versus a risk-free or stable bond and the difference is used to help investors decide which bond to invest on…
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From 2008, Italian banks survived and prevented abrupt losses using the traditional business model and limited support from the government (International Monetary Fund, IMF, 2011). But the Greek and Irish crises increased the bond spread for most EU countries, causing a decline in government securities’ value and higher risks of investments on the affected countries. Aside from the European and worldwide economic crisis, Italy suffered from other internal problems such as economic and political systems, like economic fragmentation and the people’s lack of trust in national politics (Bastasin, 2012). In addition, reports of both the Left and Right government coalitions’ inability to create long-term solutions while creating counter-productive reforms and programs did not stop the economic crises’ effects, serving only a few sectors of the government and not all Italian people (Cline & Wolff, 2012). Other issues in Italy affected the people’s economic perception like over-reliance on non-permanent government work contracts, devaluation of some public services like health services and educational institutions, people’s deterrence from spending, and the increasing unemployment rates from the lack of support for small and medium-sized firms (Di Quirico, 2010). Also, the previous administration’s problems decreased the standing of the country such as the former prime minister’s non-incarceration from numerous filed cases, creation of self-serving policies and laws, and questionable ownership of majority of national television networks resulting to near-total control over mass media (Guiliano, 2012; Viroli, 2011). Internal...
The Italian Bond Spread: Its Transformation from Berlusconi’s Third Regime to Monti’s Administration and Beyond
Like other EU nations, Italy was also affected by the global economic crisis starting from 2008, but this was not the sole factor that caused its large fiscal deficit and high bond spread. The political instability from the former Prime Minister’s issues such as misusing public funds and inefficient policies along with the nation’s multi-party system’s lack of unity lack of policies compounded on the recession’s effects. While Prime Minister Monti initially helped increase the country’s credit standing through some reforms, these were not enough to completely change Italy’s economic standing. In addition, the 2013 elections created more problems due to a political deadlock, and the three major forces that were expected to reform the Italian politics had no hopes for cooperation at present. The existing policies should be revised to solve fiscal problems as soon as possible, otherwise the recession would continue to affect the country and eventually block Italy’s further economic development.
Since most problems rooted from the leaders’ inability to create effective policies, one possible solution for Italy and other European nations is unification similar to the United States, where the government, leaders, politics along with the currencies are centralised. However, this solution would take a long time due to restructuring, developing and proper implementation.
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The spouse’s name was Teresa di Vicenzo who was widowed. The son was named after James Bond’s name James USzuki Bond who was Kissy’s son in fact. Ian Fleming’s James Bond is a British national. This fictional character is the protagonist of James Bond series of films, novels, video games, and comics (Cork, 100-120).
2. Bond ratings are based on both qualitative and quantitative factors. Some of the factors considered by the bond rating agencies include the financial strength of the company as measured by various ratios, collateral provisions, seniority of the debt, restrictive covenants, provisions such as a sinking fund or a deferred call, litigation possibilities, regulation, and so on.
On the supply side, bond holding can be a very secure investment, with a definite interest return on a regular interval. Bonds give much security in terms of return and enjoy priority privilege in times of liquidation over stocks.
US Savings Bonds can be purchased for as low as $50.
In liquid water and solid ice, the hydrogen bond is simply the chemical bond that exists between H2O molecules and keeps them together. Although relatively weak, hydrogen bonds are so numerous in water that they play a large role in determining their properties.
During an ideal dinner, participants experience the crisp and the soft, the complex and the simple, the pungent and the mellow.
To whet your appetite, and to introduce a theme, antipasti are sometimes served. This could be prosciutto di Parma with melon, Tuscan crostini smeared with liver spread, or vegetables dressed with olive oil.
When we speak of marriage, more often than not it bears a romanticized image, being that an ideal man would become a knight in a shining armor saving a damsel in distress from a life of helplessness. That is how the picture is portrayed even in fairytales, and unfortunately it has clung unto our consciousness, rooted in childhood, that we should see marriage as some sort of an escape from drudgery to sweep us unto blissful companionship.However, as I had previously implied, this is never really the case with real matrimony.
The convergence in business systems across Europe has been the natural consequence of the European Union and its predecessors.There has never been a time in history when business convergence in Europe was as steadfast and purposeful as in the present.
This market has faced a number of challenges in past few years but now it has gained popularity and is competitive with United States market.
Japanese Bond Prices --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Japanese Equity Warrants------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
This is despite the many challenges involved.
This paper explores the development of these markets and the challenges they face. It also seeks to delve into how regional financial cooperation comes into play between Latin America and its neighbors. Other