This paper seeks to focus on Shugo and Daimyo on the Muromachi period in Japanese history describing various aspects in this period. The history of Japan is rich and endowed with several changes that took place in medieval period…
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The central component in this period was Heian duration that was later followed by war-oriented governments. Despite these changes, the government of the people continued but authority was vested on military Daimyo class. The medieval period is the most significant period in the history of Japan. The Kamakura period lasted between 1185 and 1333. This was the origin of the class rule system. However, civil affairs arbitration was the authority of the imperial court. After the defeat of Taira, the Yorimoto established family capital on the eastern side of Kamakura. Yoritomo was bestowed with the name Shogun. Moreover, clan disputes were rife at this period especially the Hogen and Heiji disturbance. Kamakura period was because of defeat of Taira family at the civil war. Yoritomo goals were on solid defense of the administration and for this purpose established the Shugo. Shugo administrative area was province and acted as military governors. They played oversight role though they also collected taxes. This form of administration lasted until the later days of 19th century. Shugo later transformed into Daimyo, whose significance was felt throughout the 15th century1. Some Japanese at this period possessed warrior qualities while majority engaged in farming activities. The other most important event in Japanese history was change in government structure. Government was warrior like in nature and acquired enormous amount of wealth. Shugo incorporated culture in their military rule. Art was prominent in this period while religion was Buddhism. The Buddhist teachers taught culture to all people. This lasted for a long period before the advents of Christianity. Monks were also essential in the military rule as chief advisors. Moreover, they influenced traditional values of this culture and activities of Shugo contemporaries. In medieval age, bows and horses were used for military purpose. Samurai were always ready for any battle and were highly focused and disciplined as taught by Yabusame. Initially, warrior society was based on family lineage and gifts, mostly land, was given to Samurai who served as Shugo. This meant that the vassal continued to serve lordship in their lifetime. This period was characterized with forming of alliances between warriors to guarantee source of livelihood. There was also reward for winning alliance and eminence was acquired. There was no family respect or recognition in a battle and in fact, one had to kill a family member if it was necessary to ensure sustenance of authority. Moreover, Shugo shifted allegiance and Daimyo were based on outcomes of the battle. In the last decades of 13th century, Kamakura came under crossfire. Mongol invaded them though they were unsuccessful due to heavy wind. The second invasion saw the neglect of the warrior. Ultimately, financial problems coupled Kamakura government and were faced by an invasion that they were unable to resist. Imperial authority was weakened but emperor legacy was maintained. Rivalry existed between the north represented by Samurai family and south led by emperor. This rivalry took close half a century. Finally, Ashikaga established unity between these two rival groups. The Muromachi existed from 1336 to 1573 and this period was characterized by social disorders, conflict, and uprisings. This characterized second period of Japanese history. This period is known as Muromachi or Ashikaga. Cities were continuously destroyed due to these occurrences. The dominant thing was Shoguns power based on coalition of Shugo who controlled land and powers in the province. As a result, these warriors became wealthy and feudal system, Daimyo was established. Success of establishment of
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