The Thirteenth Amendment: The abolition of Slavery.
Between 1865 and 1875, the United States Congress, led by the Republican Party, attempted to make the four million black slaves in America into free and equal citizens of the United States (Berlin 85). …
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Through amendments to the United States Constitution and the enactment of laws, Congressional Republicans sought to place the legal status of blacks on a firm, permanent foundation. The creation of the Thirteenth Amendment on February 1, 1865 constituted their first major step to achieve this goal. The Amendment stipulated that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist within the United states…" (Amendment XIII Sec. 1). It also included a section granting Congress the authority to enforce the Amendment through appropriate legislation.
Although African Americans had been officially freed from bondage by the Amendment, their status remained uncertain. Congress attempted to rectify this situation when it enacted in April 1866 the first civil rights bill in American history. The civil Rights Act of 1866 declared that "all persons born in the United States… are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States…" (Civil Right Act of 1866 14 Stat. 27). In addition to granting citizenship to the ex-slaves, the act stipulated that:
citizens of every race and color… shall have the same right … to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens (Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. 335)....
y real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens (Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. 335). The Thirteenth Amendment, they believed, provided the constitutional basis for this act. But numerous people doubted that an amendment merely outlawing slavery could support such a law (Zuczek 21). Determined not to be thwarted in their efforts to secure these rights for African Americans, Congress, during that same year, then passed a proposed amendment that they thought would clarify the situation. Ratified in 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment, like the Civil Rights Act, granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States. It also included a somewhat vague and controversial section stipulating that: No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws (Amendment XIV of U.S Constitution). In 1870, America witnessed the ratification of the last of the Reconstruction-era amendments to the Constitution. The Republican-dominated Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment to provide African American males with the right of suffrage. Although the amendment did not stipulate this explicitly, it did declare that the right to vote "shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." This amendment, like its predecessors, contained a section authorizing Congress to pass proper enforcement legislation. In 1870 and 1871, Congress exercised this authority
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Therefore, starting with the British parliament, in 1807, more and more countries proceeded to abolish slavery – particularly focusing on the slave trade between the undeveloped regions of the world and Europe and North America. By 1865, the United States had also abolished slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
The foundation of federal law is the US constitution. This means that any clause that alters the constitution would influence the powers of federal government in the area altered. The famous Thirteenth Amendment of the US constitution expanded the authority of the federal government through instituting legislation, which abolished slavery.
They believed that if slavery was abolished in their states, then there was a likelihood of economic collapse. In order to counter this challenge to their economy, which was not the case with the northern states of the union whose economies did not depend on slaves, the southern states declared themselves independent of the union and instead chose to create their own.
The thirteenth amendment of the United States Constitution, which was passed by congress in January 31, 1865 and ratified in December 6, 1865 states that slavery of any kind is not to exist in any part of the United States or in any of its jurisdictions.
Historically, the concerns over civil rights have much to do with the ongoing efforts to eliminate inferior legal status of the minorities, and particularly African Americans in the US. The first step on this unbelievably long and difficult route was abolition of slavery.
As the paper stresses despite the disappearance of slavery in Great Britain, in the American and West Indian colonies of the British Empire, slavery was a way of life and for some reason, it was easier to abolish slavery in Great Britain than it was in the United States. Although slavery ended in the United States more than a century ago.
Both authors offer differing accounts of particular facets of slavery: the influence of the church, the master/slave relationship, government policies and the nature of slavery itself. An attempt has been made to
According to the report various ideologies were also stated in condemning slavery by terming it as a sin and an outdated way of living. The whites were expected to resolve the issue and accommodate the blacks as full members of the American society. Slavery was also associated with denying the blacks various rights like voting.
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