The early growth of women’s athletic programs and gender equity policies may be associated with, significantly, Title IX. The 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments is a federal statute which bans sex discrimination…
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Membership in women’s athletics has grown due to numerous factors. The leading cause is the far-reaching transformation in society’s treatment of and outlooks toward women, as well as a new awareness of women of their own athletic abilities and involvement (Mezey & Gluck 2003). Basically, the boost in membership of women in athletic programs and the increase in public policies addressing sex discrimination in education institutions began since the inception of Title IX. History of Title IX The Congress in 1972 endorsed Title IX of the Educational Amendments. Since 1972, the development toward sex equity in school athletic programs has been notable, although not without its problems, limitations, and flaws. Although the first guideline about the execution of Title IX was not made public until 1975 and colleges and high schools were granted until 1978 to meet the terms, its enactment conveyed a direct notice to athletic courses all over the nation (Carpenter & Acosta 2005). The law at this time clearly declared that women cannot be singled out or unfairly treated in any school activity or program where the school obtained federal support. Soon after, participation of women in athletic programs skyrocketed (Zimbalist 1999, 58): In 1971, 294,015 girls participated in high school sports; that number increased 2.8 times to 817,073 in 1973, and to 2.08 million in 1978. At the college level, 31,852 took part in varsity sports in 1971, and by 1977 the number had more than doubled to 64,375. Nevertheless, this initial thrust was not maintained as incompetent implementation machinery and legal barriers weakened the prospects of Title IX. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of the U.S. Department of Education, the department assigned to address sex...
How Title IX has Affected Public Policies in the U.S.?
Title IX has indeed changed public policy in the United States. Thus, this essay discusses how Title IX has influenced American public policy. The existence of legal alternatives resulted in a heightened dependence on the legal institution to resolve the issue of sex discrimination. Women filed cases against unfair treatment and they were frequently victorious in their lawsuits. Yet, all over the mid-1980s, a series of problems overwhelmed the women’s movement (Blumenthal 2005). The unsuccessful ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment and constraints inflicted on the implementation of Title IX by the Grove City College—the school that declined to recognize a Title IX agreement form-- resolution of the Supreme Court brought the condition at a deadlock all over this period (Zimbalist 1999).
Title IX has considerably enhanced employment and educational prospects for women. However, assessing the benefits and inequalities confirms that Title IX should be reinforced and implemented. The Office of Civil Rights should be aggressive and oblige schools to release information that shows how they have supported Title IX provisions. But, most importantly, public policy in the United States has been informed of the entire scope of Title IX safeguard, the benefits that women have gained consequently, and the problems that still exist. The effect of Title IX on civil rights policy and on the larger policy process cannot be miscalculated.
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