In this paper, attempts have been made to understand the bureaucratic model first in Middle East and then Vietnam. The US has since a long time tried to implement a bureaucratic model in many countries, especially in Middle and Vietnam. …
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Extract of sample "Do any foreign policy models (the bureaucratic politics model, groupthinking, etc.) help to explain American failure in Vietnam"
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According to the research findings before oil was discovered in Middle East, this region had become a major target for a myriad of religious conflicts and wars, which were fought over the rich resources found there and the amount of land. When the Ottoman Empire faced a downfall, it provided a path for the European colonial and imperial powers to take matters in their own vested interests and gain access to various parts of Asia, which gradually also enabled them to secure these regions in their own favor. The biggest asset of Middle East is the amount of oil that is concentrated in the region, which has simultaneously also emerged as one of the biggest problems. Therefore the Western population is highly accustomed to the propaganda of the Middle Eastern regions, and this has also brought Islam in the middle. It was especially prominent during the European colonial times, which was also exacerbated by Edward Said in his famous book, “Orientalism”. The way it has been negatively stereotyped has provided tremendous justification for involvement and also in ensuring a certain level of stability for the interests of powers that are present in the region. Another issue, which is also pivotal to Middle East, is racism and cultural stereotyping that has become very concentrated. There are certain war films that depict an Islamic or Arab group as bad, which clearly show the current conflicts etc. A bad guy is very often an Arab from one of the rogue states and because of the 9/11 attacks perpetrated against the United States and also the War on Terror; it’s very likely that this description will continue. Another huge problem is that to maintain their dominance and supremacy in the Middle Eastern, the West has also put a lot of power, money and influence in the hands of corrupt Arab leaders, and consequently collaborated in the overthrow of those people who were seen as a threat to their interests. Furthermore, it has contributed a great deal in keeping the populations at bay, for the wealth, power and militarization of the elite class. It is also said to be done for combating the phenomena of communism. The major underlying factor has however been the effort to secure access to imperative resources such as oil (Bard, 1). Middle East is one of the most militarized regions in the world, and there are a lot of arms present. Majority of the people who have been oppressed see the influence of the United States in their region as the biggest cause of all the problems, which has also led to a rise in several acts of terrorism, Islamic militancy and anti-west sentiments. Although, there have been several declarations by the United States department that most of the American interests are vested in supporting the foundation of governments based on a democratic edifice, there have been some instances when the U.S has supported the suppressed regimes in the Middle East. When the U.S were having a Cold War with the Soviet Union, there were a few policymakers who saw a very stable ally in the Middle East, whether it was tyrannical or not, which would be more preferred rather than an unstable regime that would side with the Soviets. Even when the Soviet Union collapsed, there was a whole lot of financial assistance and U.S dollars that kept flowing in to the regions, which were supposedly known as the centers for the regulation of human rights, or the evident lack of democracy. This also included Saudi Arabia (where a Wahhabi administration puts restrictions on the rights of women), Israel (which doesn’t promote the concept of equal rights for all its citizens), and the Egyptian government where an Egyptian cum American was imprisoned for supporting voter participation. In
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This is needless to mention that United States is the largest economy and military power across the globe, also known as the Super Power. However, the foreign affairs and international relations experts are doubtful about the future of USA as they have started debating the rise of great China and its possible emergence as the future Super Power.
The U.S government takes a central purpose of undertaking relations with other counties around the world, thereby becoming a sovereign country, and acquiring authority over territories. Conducting of various relationships by America their allies has depended significantly on foreign policy.
Each had a highly contrasted sense of policy from the other, in terms of how the United States should take a stand towards the Cold War and what would be the most favorable policy for their victory and the Soviets’ defeat.
In this process, it is common to see them pushing most of the interests their way. The foreign policy bureaucratic process is composed of the diplomatic unit (foreign affairs), security, economic affairs (finance), and the intelligence.
Bureaucracy in foreign policy can
naval fleet may be considered the significant issues of American foreign policy under his Presidentship.
American foreign policy, as laid down by the Founding Fathers, was based on free trade and non-intervention in global affairs. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 insisted on
According to the author, Max Weber viewed bureaucracy as a lawful system that was based on the accomplishment of a particular set of goals. The procedures involved in the bureaucracy are intended to maintain the best performance that is possible, with all the components including government departments and levels in the hierarchy.
What began in 1954 with basic economic and military aid to the struggling, anti-communist regime in South Vietnam, ended with over 50,000 American soldiers dead, 300,000 injured (Brinkley 882), more U.S. bombs dropped than in World War II (Kennedy 589), and an American populace struggling to understand what happened and why.
Additionally, the analysis will look at the arguments for and against to dissect the situation in finding out answers to the proposed questions. Background research on the treaty itself will also be included to provide fundamental knowledge about the issues being discussed in the appropriate political perspectives.
It may have been these murky beginnings that made the war such an unpopular one, and a topic that enervated rather than energized the American public. It may have been this lack of unity regarding the Vietnam conflict that offended President Johnson, who sought to turn the conflict around and make it a positive factor in American society.
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