Name Class Professor Date Compare and Contrast Governmental Structure of the Republic of Rome and Ancient Greece I. Introduction Perhaps the best way to highlight and understand the features, hierarchy and dynamics of a certain government structure is to compare and contrast it with another form of government whose structure significantly differs from the first…
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Ancient Egypt’s leadership is based on the divine rule of the Pharaoh while the Republic of Rome believes to a certain extent in democracy where people are recognized to have a say in the government. II. The new kingdom of ancient Egypt c. 1570 - 1090 The new kingdom of ancient Egypt began when the pharaohs of the eighteenth Dynasty reunited Egypt after the second intermediate period (Edgar et al Chapter 1). In governance, the leadership of ancient Egypt does not recognize democracy (old, middle and new kingdom). People are treated as a subject of a Pharaoh who was believed to be a living god. The pharaoh’s power is not subject to check and balance like those of Rome’s Republic. The pharaoh is the sole authority and needs not confer with a Senate, magistrates or assemblies in its rule. It does not have a tribune because it does not recognize any representation in the form of check and balance. Ancient Egypt adopts the theocratic form of government. Unlike Rome, religion plays a central role in Egypt that became a basis of its government and structure (Bauval 35). Due to its theocratic nature, the priests (aside from the pharaoh) were the most esteemed class in ancient Egypt. They also hold vast power because they carry out the decrees of the pharaoh. The government structure of the new kingdom of ancient Egypt was also simple because of the theocratic form of government where all powers in the government emanate from a single person which was the pharaoh. There was also no constitution in ancient Egypt. Perhaps the only thing ancient Egypt shared with the Republic of Rome was that its laws were not written. But unlike in Rome where laws can be proposed and ratified, the laws in Egypt were absolutely based on Ma’at which meant truth and justice, which was to be fair all except the slaves. The officials of ancient Egypt were few unlike in Rome where it has a Senate that is composed of few hundred men, and relatively large number of representatives in its assemblies and magistrates. The officers in ancient Egypt’s government structure are as follows; a. The pharaoh – the ancient Egyptian state was embodied by its king, which was called the pharaoh, a term which literally meant a “big house” referring to the royal palace but was later referred to the king himself. The king is believed to have supernatural powers and was worshipped and obeyed as a god. The king or the pharaoh is very powerful. In the old kingdom of ancient Egypt, he literally owns the entire land of Egypt and is entitled to all its produce (Thompson 26). Ma’at One of the pharaoh’s primary functions was to mediate between the gods and man, especially in dispensing Ma’at which is the code of behavior and standard of morality of how to do things in ancient Egypt. Ma’at meant “truth, order, proper behavior and justice (Thompson 26). To sin against Ma' at is to bring chaos into life (Verharen 93) b. The viziers – is also known as the tjaty. The vizier is considered as the pharaoh’s right hand. He is also a judge of ancient Egypt’s high court which is the equivalent of Supreme Court today. And just like the Supreme Court, his judgment is final and non appealable. The vizier was also in-charge of the economy and oversees the construction of magnificent temples and buildings (Bob Hobbs 66). c. Nomarch –
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