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Cardiac Glycosides - Research Paper Example

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The author of the following paper claims that cardiac glycosides are a category of medication that is used to treat heart failure as well as certain asymmetrical heartbeats. since cardiac glycosides are located in the leaf of the digitalis plant (the original foundation of this medication). …
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Cardiac Glycosides
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Download file to see previous pages These compounds have become important in treating heart-related conditions. This review summarizes the chemical structures, bioactivities, and modern uses of CGs.
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) happens to be a group of organic compounds that have the ability to induce cardiotonic effects and also, occur naturally in several plants, as well as in a species of toad.1Thenomenclature of CGs usually is derived from the name of the plant they occur in. The species Nerium oleander(Oleandrin), Antiaris toxicaria, Digitalis purpurea(Digitoxin, gitoxin, gitalin), Digitalis lanata(Digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin), Strophanthus kombe(Strophanthus), and Strophanthus gratus (Ouabain) species are all major plant sources of CGs.William Withering was the first to note the therapeutic benefits caused by an active ingredient in the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)--- the ingredient being a cardiac glycoside (digoxin)—as early as 1785.2The mechanisms of action for this compound were not fully understood, however, until Schwartzman and colleagues identified the plant compounds as potent Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor that disrupt electrophysiological properties of the heart.3The R group at the 17-position defines the class of cardiac glycoside (Figure 1), which as mentioned earlier, designates them as cardenolides or bufadienolides. The bufadienolides have a pyrone ring while the cardenolides have an unsaturated butyrolactone ring. Bufadienolides are mostly found in animals, while cardenolides occur mainly in plants.
Modern methods have allowed for the manufacture of safe synthesized or purified versions of CGs(with the exception of some stronger variants, namely3) such as 2(drug name: Lanoxin, Digitek, or Lanoxicaps) and digitoxin 1 to be used clinically as cardiotonic drugs to treat congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation because of their ability to improve the contractile force of the myocardium. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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