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Immunology - Essay Example

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NATURAL KILLER CELLS Name Natural Killer Cells Discuss the role of NK cells in innate anti-viral immunity and explain how NK cells are able to kill many types of virus-infected cells and not normal host cells. Natural killer cells are an important part of the innate immune system of the human beings…
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Download file to see previous pages These cells develop in the human beings with the assistance of Interleukin 15 and they arise from the bone marrow through the CD34 cells which are hematopoietic stem cells. The natural killer cells do have a few T cell markers but unlike the T lymphocytes, thymus is not required for the maturation of the natural killer cells (Levinson 2008 p. 421). Another important aspect which is unique to these cells is that their quantity does not reduce in pathologic conditions which involve T Cells like Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease. Natural killer cells are referred to as “natural” owing to the fact that they can function without having any previous interaction with the virus and their non-specificity as they can act on all viruses. Also their efficiency is not improved by previous infections. These cells have an important function of protecting the body against viruses and this is proved as humans who do not have natural killer cells in their body have a higher susceptibility to develop lethal viral infections which include varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus (Hoffman et al 2013 p. 210; Levinson 2008 p. 421,422). Natural killer cells are an important constituent of the innate immunity and are amongst the first immune cells to reach the areas of inflammation and initiate an immune response. They are larger in size as compared to the B and T cells which is owing to the greater amount of cytoplasm in these cells which is composed of granules containing cytotoxic substances. These granules along with the substances within them are known to be identical to the granules of cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (Lambris 2007 p.7). A significant role of these cells is that they come into action in an infection before the activation of T cells. It is also known that these cells are the first producers of interferon gamma. This prompt response of natural killer cells is noteworthy because individuals who have properly functioning T cell responses but lack natural killer cells have a tendency to develop fatal viral infections (Lambris 2007 p.7; Marsh et al 2000 p.46). Natural killer cells mainly follow two pathways for attacking and destroying the cells that they target. The first pathway is the cytotoxic granule dependent pathway. In this process, the receptors of the natural killer cells bind to the cells that are infected by viruses. This attachment promotes the secretion of perforin as well as granzymes that are present within the cytotoxic granules of the natural killer cells. Perforin is a protein that has a role in creating pores whereas granzymes are a group of proteases. Perforin acts on the membrane of the cell infected by the virus and creates pores, forming a passage for the granzymes into the attacked cell. The granzymes in turn activate the caspase protease system by either direct activation or by the production of Cytochrome c within the mitochondria which then leads to the apoptosome path for the initiation of the caspase system. Thus, this activation of the caspase protease system results in the cell death and destruction of infected cells. The second path that is used by the natural killer cells for the induction of apoptosis of the cells infected with viruses is known as the death receptor pathway. The natural killer cell memranes have the Fas ligand bound to them. In this path, the natural killer cells uses these ligands leading to the trimerization of the Fas receptors which ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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... mediated by T cells. Most scholars believe that Natural Killer cells evolved as a response to this kind of adaptation. The depletion of MHC denies CD4/CD8 action so other immune cells evolved to play this function. References Arina, A., Murillo, O., Dubrot, J., Azpilikueta, A., Alfaro, C., PArez-Gracia, J.,L., Bendandi, M., Palencia, B., HervA?s-Stubbs, S. & Melero, I. (2007). "'Cellular liaisons of natural killer lymphocytes in immunology and immunotherapy of cancer'". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 5: 599–615. Bulmer, J, Williams, P, Lash, G. 2010. Immune cells in the placental bed. Int J Dev Biol 54: 281–294. Doan, T. 2008. Immunology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Iannello, A., Debbeche, O., Samarani, S., Ahmad, A. 2008...
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..., Hornsby E, Li Y, Cua DJ, Ahlfors H, Wilhelm C, Tolaini M, Menzel U, Garefalaki A, Potocnik AJ, Stockinger B. Nat Immunol (2011). "Fate mapping of IL-17-producing T cells in inflammatory responses". Nature Immunology 12 (3): 255–63. Larsen M, Arnaud L, Hie M, Parizot C, Dorgham K, Shoukry M, Kemula M, Barete S, Derai D, Sauce D, Amoura Z, Pene J, Yssel H, Gorochov G. Eur J Immunol (2011). "Multiparameter grouping delineates heterogeneous populations of human IL-17 and/or IL-22 T-cell producers that share antigen specificities with other T-cell subsets". European Journal of Immunology (UPMC Paris 06 Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Inserm) UMR-S 945) 41 (9): 2596–2605 Nakayamada...
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..., NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Male, D., Brostoff, J., Roth, D. & Roitt, I., 2006. Immunology. 7th ed. Philadephia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences. Mayer, G. & Nyland, J., 2010. Major Histocompatibility Complex. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 26 July 2013]. Morrow, W., Sheikh, N., Schmidt, C. & Davies, D., 2012. Vaccinology: Principles and Practice. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Schmid, D., Pypaert, M. & Munz, C., 2007. MHC class II antigen loading compartments continuously receive input from autophagosomes. Immunity, 26(1), pp. 79-92. Williams, A. E., 2012. Immunology: Mucosal and Body Surface Defences. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.....
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...? Immunology Teacher’s ID Thymus is an organ playing vital role in self-immunology. It provides necessary informationto lymphocytes against the antigens and helps T-cells to play their role in immunological equilibrium. It is important to note that antigens can be introduced into the body from external sources and be produced by body itself. The antigens produced by human body itself are called self-antigens. However, thymus is capable of distinguishing between external and self-antigens through various mechanisms. Body’s response to self-antigens can trigger auto-immune disorders. Therefore, it develops tolerance towards self-antigens. Establishment of tolerance towards self antigens is dependent on positive and negative selection by T...
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...because they provide for the differences in the biological activity of these immunoglobulins. Bibliography ANANTHANARAYAN, R.,& PANIKER, C. J. (2005). Textbook of Microbiology. Hyderabad (A.P.), Orient Longman Private Ltd. KAYSER, F. H. & BIENZ, K. (2005). Medical microbiology. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag. LEVINSON, W. (2008). Review of medical microbiology and immunology. New York, McGraw-Hill Medical. MACPHERSON, G., & AUSTYN, J. M. (2012). Exploring immunology: concepts and evidence. Weinheim, Wiley-Blackwell. SCHROEDER JR. H.W., & CAVACINI L. (2010). Structure and function of immunoglobulins.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 125, S41-S52. SHETTY, N. (2005). Immunology introductory textbook. New Delhi, New Age...
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... 102(9):3447-3457.) Saxena, P. 2006 New method to analyse the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the human genome. RxPg News, Immunology Channel; Accessed immunology/New_method_to_analyse_the_Major_Histocompatibility_4124.shtml> Saito, S., Motomura, n., Lou, h., Ramwell, P. W., Foegh, M.L. and Lefrak, E. A. 1997 Specific effects of estrogen on growth factor and major histocompatibility complex class ii antigen expression in rat aortic allograft. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery;114:803-810 Wetzman, J. B. 2000 Complete sequence and gene map of the major histocompatibility complex. Nature, 401: 921-923... Immunology The remarkable work and development in science and technology has brought humanity to an enhanced quality of life. Similarly, the outcomes in medical research...
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..., dehydration after 5-10 days of being infected. Bibliography Albert et al. 2002. Molecular Biology of The Cell. Garland Science. 0-8153-3218-1 Beardsley, et al. 1983 Induction of T-Cell Maturation by a Cloned Line of Thymic (TEPI). Immunology. 6005-6009 Carmichael, L 2005 An annotated historical account of canine parvovirus". J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 52 (7-8): 303–11. Hoover, E, Mullins, J 1991. Feline Leukemia Infections and Diseases. Medline 15;199 Little, S 2006 Feline Leukemia Virus. The Winn Feline Foundation 08736-0805 Mech, K, Biotani, S 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN. Available [30 August 2008] Pancer, Z, Cooper, M. 2006...
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