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Mini Project- d-block Chemistry - Essay Example

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Mini Project – d-block chemistry Instructions There are 10 (ten) questions. Answer all questions. Question 1. a) Complete the following table that gives the electronic configuration of the 1st row d-block elements and their corresponding ions in oxidations states (II) and (III)…
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Mini Project- d-block Chemistry
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Download file to see previous pages Answer: Cr [Ar] 4s13d5 and Cu [Ar] 4s13d10 are two irregularities present in the d-block elements. This can be explained using Hund’s rule of electrons filling all the orbitals in the subshell before they pair up with opposite spins. For chromium 4s1 3d5 will be lower in energy than 4s2 3d4 since the electron pairing energy is not needed for 4s orbital. The energy required for pairing is more than the difference in the energies of 4s and 3d orbitals. Thus, the lowest energy electron configuration will be the one which has one electron in each of the six orbitals that are available. For copper, the 3d orbital has less energy than that of the 4s because of high effective nuclear charge. Copper also has smaller size and more stable inner shell orbitals than the elements placed before it. Therefore, it is better to have the paired electrons in the d and the unpaired one in the s. Question 2. a) Give a definition of a Lewis acid and a Lewis base. Answer: Lewis acid is a substance which accepts a pair of electrons like an H+ ion. A Lewis base is any substance which donates a pair of nonbonding electrons, for example, the OH- ion. Transition metals form Lewis acids as they bond with electron-donating species. The ligands interacting with the metal ion are the Lewis bases as they donate their unshared pair of electrons to the central atom. The coordinate bond, so formed, is provided by the ligand or Lewis base. b) In a reaction of CoCl3 and NH3 a number of cobalt (III) complexes with different colour were formed. Explain this observation. When CoCl2 is dissolved in aqueous ammonia it forms several complexes in the +3 oxidation state. These complexes have different colors and different empirical formulas. Co3+ ion has a secondary valence or coordination number of six. [CoCl3(NH3)4]   green [CoCl3(NH3)5]   purple [CoCl3(NH3)6]   orange-yellow [CoCl3(NH3)5(H2O)]   red The different composition of each of these complexes gives rise to crystal fields that differ in strength. A weaker field causes the energy gap between two subsets of d-orbitals (?) to be small. It can absorb low frequency radiation to move from one level to the other. For example, [Co(NH3)4Cl2+][Cl-] absorbs red and appears green. The converse is true for [Co(NH3)5(H2O)3+][Cl-]3 which absorbs blue-green light and appears red in colour. c) Draw the structure of each of the possible complexes formed in part (b). d) Draw the structure of the complex [Cr(en)3]Cl3 Question 3. Complete the following table Metal complex Coordination number Oxidation state of the metal [Co(NH3)5(ONO)]2+ 6 2 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ 4 2 [Fe(CN)6]3 6 3 [Ni(CO)4] 4 0 Na4[Mn(ox)3] 3 2 [VO(acac)2] 2 4 Question 4. Give the chemical formula of the following metal complexes: a) Potassium hexafluorocobaltate (III) : K3[CoF6] b) Tetraamminechloronitrocobalt(III) chloride: [Co(NH3)4(NO2)]Cl2 c) Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II) sulphate: [Ni(en)3]SO4 d) Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(II) nitrate: [Co(en)3](NO3)2 e) Cobalt(II) hexanitrocobaltate(III): Co3[Co(NO2)6]2 f) Ammineaquadicarbonyldicyanoiron(III):[Fe(CN)2(NH3)(H2O)(CO)2]+ Question 5. Name the following complexes: a) [CoI(NH3)5]Cl2 : ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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