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Allopurinol and cardiovascular diseases: systematic review and Meta-Analysis - Dissertation Example

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Allopurinol and Cardiovascular Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis By [Name of Student] [Name of Institution] 2342 Words [Date] Risk Factors and Treatment of Blood Pressure High blood pressure is perhaps the most common of all cardiovascular diseases…
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Allopurinol and cardiovascular diseases: systematic review and Meta-Analysis

Download file to see previous pages... With regards to age, the risk of contracting high blood pressure is directly proportional to one’s age. High blood pressure is also reported to be more prevalent among black communities amongst which the condition is observed to develop at an earlier age compared to white communities. This trend is similar to the case of other diseases such as heart attack and stroke (Mozaffarian et al., 2012). High blood pressure also tends to run in families. With respect to being overweight, the more one weighs, the more blood is needed and supplied to supply oxygen and nutrients to body tissues. Similarly, as the amount of blood circulated in blood vessels increases, the pressure on the artery walls also increases. The other risk factor is physical inactivity, which implies that inactive people tend to have higher heart rates than physically active people (Mozaffarian et al., 2012). Tobacco use is the other risk factor since tobacco raises blood pressure temporarily. Worse still, tobacco chemicals have the effects of damaging the lining of artery walls increasing the likelihood of narrowing one’s arteries. Excessive salt (sodium) in diet also causes the body to retain excess fluid, thus increasing blood pressure. On the contrary, little potassium in one’s diet also increases the chances of contracting high blood pressure. It should be noted that Potassium assist in balancing the level of sodium in body cells. The other risk factors of high blood pressure are lack of vitamin D in the diet, high levels of stress, which may lead to a temporary but dramatic increase in blood pressure. Chronic conditions such as cholesterol, diabetes, kidney disease and sleep apnea and pregnancy may increase or contribute to high blood pressure. There are several treatment approaches or therapies through which blood pressure may be treated. Among the medications recommended and applied on high blood pressure are Thiazide diuretics, Beta blockers, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers and central-acting agents among others. First, Thiazide diuretics, also known as water pills, act on the kidneys, helping the body to reduce or eliminate sodium and water. In the process, these actions lead to a reduced blood volume. On the other hand, Beta blockers lower the workload on the heart by opening the blood vessels. Consequently, they make the heart to beat slower using less force. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work by relaxing the blood vessels and by blocking the formation of a natural chemical, which would narrows blood vessels. On the other hand, Alpha blockers reduce nerve impulses to blood vessels and lower the effects of natural chemicals, which narrow blood vessels. Central-acting agents prevent the brain from signaling the CNS, increasing the heart rate and narrow blood vessels. The other treatment is Vasodilators, which work directly on the muscles on the walls of the arteries. This action prevents the artery muscles from tightening and arteries from narrowing. What Serum Uric Acid Is Prior to exploring the ways of lowering the levels of uric acid, it is necessary to understand what it actually is, its source, causes of high levels of uric acid and how to leads to gout. Uric acid is a derivative of the chemical breakdown of purines, found in cells and food (Perry & Smith, 2012). Purines are used for energy synthesis in the body as well as protein. In the process of providing these vital biochemical substances, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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