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Blood and urine practical potfolio - Essay Example

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Biological markers-nutritional status of an individual Blood Mixed up case files A case presented before me contains complaints of fatigue, weakness, dizziness, cold feet, weight loss, itchy ear, skin infections, decreased vision, change in bowel movements and sexual dysfunction…
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Blood and urine practical potfolio
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Download file to see previous pages Hematocrit signifies the component of the blood that is made up of red blood cells only. Thus any condition that increases the oxygen demand of the body will increase this percentage. These conditions include living at high altitudes and pregnancy. Other conditions that might increase this value are a recent blood transfusion or severe dehydration. A low value of hematocrit signifies a failure to synthesize red blood cells or blood loss. Conditions such as bone marrow failure, intestinal malignancies and menorrhagia lead to decreased hematocrit levels. The data shows that the hematocrit level is within normal range and therefore the sample does not belong to this particular patient. Also the patient does not show any symptoms related to the increase or decrease in the hematocrit level. The second piece of information that is given in the report is the glucose level. The sample has a glucose level of 5.0 mmol/L. The normal range of glucose level in blood is between 5.6 mmol/L - 6.9 mmol/L (WebMD, 2011). A glucose level of 5.0 mmol/L indicates hypoglycaemia which shows with symptoms like sweating, shortness of breath, dizziness and fainting. Although the given patient does present these symptoms, some of the symptoms presented by patient are in sharp contrast to these test results. Thus it is safe to say that the report of the sample given to does not belong to this patient. The symptoms of the patient reveal certain things about the underlying disease. Symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, weight loss and weakness are general signs of underlying pathology that puts extra stress on the body and the patient ends up showing these symptoms. However, other symptoms like decreased vision, cold feet, altered bowel movements and sexual dysfunction point towards compromised circulation of blood. Skin infections and itchy ear point towards an increased propensity to develop infections. Some of the conditions that could show as these symptoms are the immunological disorders and cardiac diseases. If the patient is suffering from immunological disorders, the patient would show decreased immunological markers in the blood. If the patient was to have a cardiac disease, his blood sample would show cardiac enzymes. However, when one patient shows signs of both diseases, it is a strong indication of it being due to diabetes. The given sample shows normal hematocrit with hypoglycaemia. In a diabetic, the hematocrit would either be normal or elevated and would be coupled with hyperglycaemia. The hematocrit would be normal if the patient is taking adequate liquids and it would be elevated if the patient is severely dehydrated as is mostly the case. The glucose level would be elevated in a diabetic patient because the body is unable to utilize glucose and it stays in the blood. When considering symptoms, it is important to keep in mind the effects of diabetes on multiple systems of the body in order to explain the symptoms of the patient. Any disease can manifest with symptoms like fatigue, dizziness and weakness. Every disease process involves increased catabolic activity at all levels in the body with increased demands for nutrients and oxygen. When these demands are not met, their levels in the blood oscillate and result in symptoms like fatigue and weakness. When this process continues for too long and the demands are not met perpetually, the body starts to consume its own nutrient reserves in the liver and fat and once they ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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