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Oral Infections and Orthopedic Surgical Procedures - Research Paper Example

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Name Professor Subject Date Oral Infections in Orthopedic Surgical Procedures Preventing infections after any surgical procedure is the main goal of post operative care. This is to ensure safety of clients to be free from any harm of complications that could arise from invasive procedures such as surgeries…
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Oral Infections and Orthopedic Surgical Procedures
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Download file to see previous pages Patients who experience postoperative complications have dramatically increased hospital length of stay, hospital costs, and mortality and morbidity rates (Brazler & Hunt). Particularly in this paper, complications after orthopedic surgical procedures, such as hip, knee or shoulder joint repair, arising from oral infections will be discussed in terms of its incidence, management, prevention and cure. Post surgical infection: The dental and orthopedic relation According to Callan et al., the total population of the oral microflora of the human mouth has been estimated at 6 billion microbes that includes approximately 140 taxonomic groups and 700 plus different species. Although it is unlikely that any one individual harbors more than 200 species, according to studies at least 30 species participate in the inflammatory periodontal diseases. The 30 known species are mostly gram-negative and anaerobic, and produce endotoxins and other antigens capable of eliciting a profound host immune response (Callan et al.). Since a person’s oral cavity is naturally populated with dense and diverse population of oral microbes, it is said that dental patients suffer from periodic episodes of transient bacterial infections of oral origins. Dental procedures have long been considered a potential cause of implant infections even after the initial orthopedic postoperative period. This is because dental procedures can introduce bacteria from the mouth into the bloodstream (Jevsevar 1). Numerous reports have identified bacteremia in patients after dental treatment procedures such as extractions, scaling, periodontal probing, suture removal, orthodontic treatment, restorative dentistry, and nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Surprisingly it is also considered that even normal everyday oral activities such as mastication, tooth brushing and dental flossing can contribute to bacterial penetration in the blood stream. In fact several authors say that everyday oral event is more significant than dental procedures as a probable cause of systemic infection that leads to orthopedic surgery complications (Callan et al.). In the United States, it is estimated that more than 500,000 total joint arthroplasties are performed annually. Infection rate of such surgery are secondary to bacteremia. However, in spite of the potential for infection, case studies suggest that the risk of a joint prosthesis infection from bacteremia of oral origin is exceedingly low (Callan et al.). According to some studies, most joint infections appear to be caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or other coagulase-negative staphylococci which are, on the contrary, not oral in origin. The predominant oral microbes implicated in both endocarditis and septic prosthetic joints belong to the viridians streptococci family such as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mutans. In addition to being ?-hemolytic, all of the viridans streptococci are aerobic, gram-positive microbes. Analyzed data from 6 studies determined that roughly 66% of 281 bacteria isolated from prosthetic joint infections were staphylococci, but only a small percentage of 5% were classified as viridans streptococci (Callan et al.). Such study suggest that orthopedic infections resulting from bacteremia o ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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