Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Advances in the field of imaging technology have made magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), available to medical science. MRI is a powerful and versatile diagnostic tool, with the consequence of increasing popularity in its use…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.6% of users find it useful
MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention"

Download file to see previous pages MRI Safety: RF Burns – Causes and Prevention

However, the interaction of MRI technology with the human body cannot be deemed to be totally safe, with incidents of harm occurring in some cases of MRI examinations (Stokowski, 2005). Bio-effects of MRI refer to the biological effects that occur to the human body, as a result of the interaction between the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner and the human body. These bio-effects can be classified into three, namely, the static field effects, the time varying field or the gradient, and the radio-frequency (RF) effects. Tissue heating can occur through excessive RF interaction in patients, leading to RF burns (Liney, 2010). This paper evaluates the causes for RF burns and the preventive measures that can be taken to reduce the incidence of RF burns. Heat Stress in RF Technology in MRI According to Shellock 2000, p.30, “Radiofrequency (RF) energy is non-ionizing, electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 0-3000 GHz.” Evidence from more than three decades of research has demonstrated that RF radiation exposure can have many physiological impacts in the human body. These physiological effects are essentially caused by the RF-induced tissue heating in the human body. During MRI diagnostic examinations, a large portion of the RF energy employed in imaging or spectroscopy gets converted into thermal energy in the tissues of the individual under investigation, due to resistive losses. Therefore, the main bio-effects due to the RF radiation used in MRI technology are a direct consequence of the thermogenic qualities of this electromagnetic field (Shellock, 2000). Potential risks for individuals in diagnostic imaging using MRI technology relate to the individuals under imaging evaluation and those individuals close to the MRI imaging device, stemming from exposure to the static magnetic field (B0), magnetic field gradients of time variance (dB/dt), and radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields (B1). The important issues relating to safety of RF fields during MRI diagnostic imaging pertain to thermal heating, that results in current burns and contact burns from the heat stress that is generated. Irrespective of the frequency, induced currents cause power dissipation in the tissues of the human body, which results in the build up of energy and increase in the temperature of the body. At frequency levels over 0.1 MHz the thermal impact is more pronounced that has a strong bearing on the safety issues with MRI diagnostic imaging. There is uneven distribution of the RF field, as in-in-homogeneity is enhanced, when the strength of the field is raised, depending on the design of the coil (MHRA Device Bulletin, 2007). Table – 1 gives typical field strengths and RF transmit frequencies for MR systems. Table – 1 Typical Field Strengths and RF Transmit Frequencies for MR systems Field Strength (T) Transmit Frequency (MHz) 0.2 8.5 0.5 21 1.0 42 1.5 63 3.0 126 (MHRA Device Bulletin, 2007) The consequence of absorption of energy from RF fields in the human body is an increase in vibration of molecules and heat generation. Within the tissues of humans the resultant reaction is dilation of the arteries and veins, which leads to enhancement in blood flow in the tissues, and dissipation of the extra heat, through dissipation predominantly through the skin. Different organs in the human body do not have the same electromagnetic and thermal nature. In the case of the human eye there is scanty blood flow and hardly any in the eye lens. The result of low or negligible blood flow means that heat dissipation ...Download file to see next pages Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention Essay”, n.d.)
MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention Essay. Retrieved from
(MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention Essay)
MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention Essay.
“MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
amparogislason added comment 9 months ago
Student rated this paper as
I never thought 2000 words essay could be written in such a free manner. I loved the style of this essay. Will definitely use it for my own work!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention

Ensuring Safety at Sea

These include the Gyro compass and the rate of turn indicator, among others.
Moreover, the AIS yields data from the ship’s compass and transmits this simultaneously. Relevant information including the ship’s name and the VHF call sign are encoded during equipment installation and are transmitted less often. Receipt of such signals is done through the AIS transponders installed on other ships and on land-based systems like the VTS.
To guarantee that the VHF transmissions of distinct AIS transponders do not transpire simultaneously, they are time-multiplexed. This is made possible through the use of patented technology tagged as STDMA (Self-organising Time Division Multiple Access). One issue of contention is w...
7 Pages (1750 words) Assignment

Safety of Soy-Based Infant Formulas

If the condition is not detected at birth with proper testing, symptoms usually occur within the first few days or weeks of life after the baby drinks breast milk or a lactose-containing formula. The buildup of galactose can cause severe damage to the liver, kidneys, central nervous system, and other body systems.
A less severe form of this disease is Duarte galactosemia or galactokinase deficiency. This condition can be managed with a few dietary restrictions, and there is no risk of neurologic or liver damage. However, cataracts can develop.
Following symptoms and signs are present: poor feeding and poor weight gain, vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, cataracts, lethargy and hypotonia, hepatomegaly, encephalopathy, bulgi...
8 Pages (2000 words) Assignment

The Causes of Plagiarism and Strategies to Prevent It in a University Environment

There is another aspect of practicing plagiarism, which has been discussed by Edward M. White. He has seen the problem of plagiarism from a different angle in his “opinion” article in Chronicle of Higher Education, “Student Plagiarism as an Institutional and Social Issue”. He has raised the issue of “Research Assistance” provided by advertisers, “Thousand of papers in stock, available for any course”, pointing to the problem of not only graded students papers going out of the office for resurfacing in future but the immoral practice of taking outside sources help to complete the assignments, which, according to the writer, needs to be fixed. This trend of plagiarism has degraded lear...
12 Pages (3000 words) Report

Building Control, Planning and Health and Safety

For semi-detached or detached house the volume of the extension is less than 70m3 or 15 percent of the volume of the original building whichever is the greater subject - with an absolute limit of 115m3.” [1]

Though apparently the extension pertains to none of the above cases yet the purpose of the extension if renewed and renovated it may not at all require the Building Regulation’s approval and obtain a retrospective Building Regulation consent for the extension from the Local Authority. When the house converted to a terraced house the extension’s construction becomes perfectly legal considering it is less than 50 cc or 10% of the volume of the original building as cited above. Poles are bored to crea...
6 Pages (1500 words) Case Study

Community Assessment for Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis C in Adult Population

With the increased awareness and advancement in research, involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, clinical expertise exists for the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases like HCV among injection drug users, since the mode of infection and behavior of vulnerable population for both HIV and HCV contagion are identical. Since the transmission of HCV is similar to HIV and IDU is the primary risk factor for HCV infection, and coinfection of these two blood-borne diseases cause morbidity and mortality, harm reduction approach and the strategies that address the social and economic harms that impact an individual, community, or society are paramount in preventing the epidemic.

Hepatitis C is the ma...
11 Pages (2750 words) Term Paper

Normal Anatomy and Causes of Knee Arthritis

A complete loss of articular cartilage is noted resulting in soft, elasticity loss, and fibrillation of the articular cartilage leading to the burned bone that is devoid of cartilage (Schwartz et al. 1942; LeadingMD par. 2). Complete loss of articular cartilage results in narrowing of the joint space, bone spurs, motion loss, pain, and disability (Schwartz, et al. 1942; LeadingMD par. 2). Knee arthritis, that typically influences patients over 50 years old, affects all knee cartilage leading to biomechanical and biochemical changes that impairs cartilage function (LeadingMD par. 6).

Knee arthritis occurs as a consequence of an injury, surgical procedure that includes partial or complete removal of the meniscus cartilage...
8 Pages (2000 words) Term Paper

Depression in Children: Prevention and Treatment

Various theories have been put forward for the development of depression. It is important to understand the causes of depression in children so that proper intervention can be provided in proper time and in an appropriate manner.
According to the Cognitive Theory of Depression, negative thinking alters the perceptions, interpretations, and memory of the personal world and leads to the development of depressive symptoms. The Parent-Child Model for Socialization theory proposes that intrusive support from the parents to those children who are constantly involved in the negative self-evaluative process causes depression The Tripartite Model of Depression and Anxiety theorizes that depression is characterized by the low positive...
6 Pages (1500 words) Literature review

Causes of Illegal Drugs Consumption Among Women

...CAUSES OF ILLEGAL DRUGS CONSUMPTION AMONG WOMEN The present research paper aims to find out the situation and circumstances leading the individualstowards illegal drug consumption. The study has been supported by four different researches made on the causes of women indulgence in drug use, which include “Drug Addiction among Females in Lahore” by Mubeen & Sharif (2007), “Perception of Drug Addiction among Turkish University Students” by Cirakoglu & Isin (2005), “Concepts of Chemical Dependency” by Doweiko (2006) and “Biological and Sociological Causes of Perversion” by Zaidi (1999). The study investigates divergent sociological views by making comparison of these researches and concludes that sensational pleasures, domestic turmoil...
7 Pages (1750 words) Coursework

Causes and Symptoms of Pathological Gambling

While younger men are prone to be subjected to pathological gambling, women between the ages of 20-40 are the ones who are most vulnerable to the addiction (National Research Council, 1999).

Pathological gambling usually begins from the simple pleasure of gambling; after all, to develop a habit or addiction, the person must first be experienced in what they are doing. If a person is subjected to gamble too often, they can develop a pattern, repetitively returning to gambling. When this person is away from the addictiveness of gambling for a long period of time, they become restless and stressful, so the natural solution for them would be to keep gambling. It becomes a domino effect after this. A game of chance turns int...
8 Pages (2000 words) Assignment

Occupational Marine Safety and Health Management in the USA

The US Marine Corps ORM manual highlights the processes and steps that must be adhered to, for the maintenance of quality service and safety. The nature of militants’ operations, particularly combat operations, is quite complex, demanding and involves a lot of risks. In order to operate effectively, the ORM manual has integrated two important aspects: safety and risk management, in decision making. This helps the leaders and commanders to strategically plan and execute their daily missions. The ORM enables US Marine Corps to discharge their duty, with minimal losses and in a timely manner. Therefore, ORM has proven to be an invaluable tool for the U.S Marine Corps operations.
The Oxford Learners Dictionary defines risk...
33 Pages (8250 words) Research Proposal
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic MRI Safety: RF Burns - Causes and Prevention for FREE!

Contact Us