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Exploring Age - Essay Example

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Aging is a natural, gradual, and ongoing process that sets off at birth and continues throughout all stages of a person’s life. The life expectancy of a person may be affected by factors such as heredity, lifestyle, health care, and environment e.g. exposure to toxins may dramatically reduce expectancy. …
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Download file to see previous pages But later in the 1960s, cases in children were reported in some of the African countries (Sullivan et al 2006). Epidemiologically, Kaposi sarcoma can be divided into four types that are characteristically prevalent in different parts of the world. These four forms include classic, endemic, post-transplant or iatrogenic and HIV related Kaposi Sarcoma (Boshoff et al 2001; Eto et al 1996). The classic type is more prevalent in the European and Mediterranean countries and mostly affects the older patients. Classic Kaposi sarcoma is more common in the male population in comparison to the female population with a 3:1 ratio (Franceschi & Geddes 1995). The endemic form, also known as non-HIV related Kaposi Sarcoma, is more common in the African countries and was evident even before HIV appeared on the horizon. This form of Kaposi sarcoma is more lethal and progresses aggressively than the classic form. As predictable, prevalence of HIV related Kaposi sarcoma shows a linear relationship with the incidence of HIV infection. In UK, the classic type is the most prevalent form of Kaposi sarcoma. As it was evident in a retrograde study (Grulich et al 1992) conducted to analyse the epidemiological prevalence of Kaposi Sarcoma, the incidence of this cancer was very low in UK and Wales as compared to other western countries. It is estimated that the incidence rate in UK during 1970 and 1980 was about 20% lower than that registered in the United States (Biggar et al 1984). The retrospective analysis of 68 patients, who were found to be affected with Kaposi sarcoma during the period of 1971 to 1980 in UK and Wales, showed an interesting link. Most of the affected patients were not the natives born in England or Wales but were immigrants born outside in other countries. In depth research of those individual revealed that the geographic distribution of their country of origin corresponds to the pre AIDS region of Kaposi Sarcoma. This may highlight the fact the actual incidence of Kaposi sarcoma may be even lower in UK and Wales than was registered during the period of 1970 to 1980 (Grulich et al 1992). Pathogenesis: Kaposi Sarcoma was highlighted in the recent decades due to its association with Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is believed to be the most common form of cancer evident in AIDS affecting approximately 15 to 20% of these patients (Chang et al 1994). But HIV alone is not responsible for the pathogenesis of Kaposi Sarcoma and an infective aetiology is suspected which plays a key role along with immuno compromised conditions. Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) or Human Herpes virus 8 is the main infectious agent in the development of Kaposi sarcoma (Ganem 2006; Changet al 1994). The disease was first described by Moritz Kaposi and hence it was named after him. The word sarcoma is a misnomer in this case as the tumour was initially thought to be mesenchymal in origin. But eventually as the microscopic advancement revealed the inner depth of tissues, its pathogenesis became more evident and it was clear that the Kaposi Sarcoma lesion composed of different types of cells. The exact origin is still not clear but it has been proposed that it may arise from lymphatic endothelium (Beckstead et al 1985). During the development of the tumour, the lesions represent variable stages of the disease. The reddish patchy lesion signifies the beginning of the lesion with no mass yet evident on the skin. This lesion is still intra dermal and the red colour is due to new blood vessels formation, neovascularity, and red blood cell accumulation which is a prominent feature early in this disease. This is in contrast to the other tumours where angiogenesis begins at later stages of tumour progression. The elongated ‘ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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