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Cancer Health Sciences and Medicine - Research Paper Example

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“Cancer” Introduction Cancers initially progress from the normal cells and gradually gain the potential to multiply unusually and ultimately become malignant. These malignant cells proliferate clonally and form tumors which in due course impend to turn metastatic…
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Cancer Health Sciences and Medicine Research Paper
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Download file to see previous pages As genes are the basic control machine of the cell, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. Moreover, in normal cells damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system but in cancer cells the repair function is also altered, thereby no repair of the damaged DNA occurs, cells divide continuously without displaying senescence hence, generating series of abnormal cells. (Normal cell cycle) (Genetic mutation- causes alteration in genes) (Alberts, 2007) "Cancer" the terminology has wide spectrum as it encompass a large group of cells, varied tissues and organs. Cancer is a genetic phenomenon that onsets as a result of trigger in the signal transduction of normal cell cycle, causing alteration in the cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation figuring malignant tumors. Cancer cells are not confined to one location and they turn invasive, spread to the nearby tissues initially and gradually their seedlings are carried to different parts/ organs of the body via lymph or blood causing invasion of the cancer to other tissues and organs. This stage is called metastasis. On the contrary, in some cases cancer cells do not display uncontrolled growth, they are non-invasive and do not spread, such stage of cancer only forms benign tumors. Classification of cancer According to National Cancer Institute, cancer encompasses as many as 100 different kinds. They are named on the basis of organ they are associated with or the origin of the cell, e.g. cancer that is initiated in colon is known as colon cancer while basal cell carcinoma is the name given to the cancer that is initiated in the basal cells of the skin. Classification of cancer includes numerous categories- Carcinoma- Cancer that is initiated in the skin or the lining of the internal organs. Sarcoma- Cancer that is initiated in mesodermal tissues encompassing bone, cartilage, muscles, blood vessels or any connective tissue. Leukemia- includes cancers that onsets its proliferation in blood- forming tissues, bone marrow leading to the formation of abnormal blood cells. Lymphoma and myeloma- Involves cancer that onsets in the immune system cells. Central nervous system cancers- involves the uncontrolled proliferation that occurs in the tissues of nervous system, brain and spinal cord. Germ cell tumor encompassing pluripotent cells present in germ line. Blastoma- involves cancer of embryonic tissues (National Cancer Institute). Factors influencing the cancer formation 1. Environmental factors- tobacco and alcohol consumption may trigger the proliferation of cancer cells. 2. Obesity- sedentary life style and higher intake of calorific fast food may lead to the trigger of cancer genes (Bassen- Engguist, 2011). 3. Alteration in the environment, due to pollution of the atmosphere, release of obnoxious agents with carbon particles including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the industries, release of household as well as industrial waste into the rivers making the water unfit for consumption, may harbour various chemical agents may act as carcinogens, causing cancer. 4. Genetic factors especially genetic susceptibility for cancer due to genetic polymorphism leading to the interaction of genes with the environmental agents. 5. Radiation hazards encompassing UV, radioactive radiations, xenochemicals etc may act as carcinogenic agents. 6. Various microbes, viruses like hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus are known to be associated with hepatocellular cancer, HIV is associated with Hodgkin's and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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