Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
INTRODUCTION Cells need to be at certain specific conditions before they can function normally. Unlike plants or bacteria, animals cell do not have cell walls covering their plasma membranes. Thus, they are more prone to changes in the ionic concentrations of the interstitial fluid bathing them…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.5% of users find it useful
Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure"

Download file to see previous pages Thus, humans employ organs that protect the cells by maintaining the ion concentrations within normal levels and removing toxins from the extracellular environment. Both of these functions are done by kidneys. As organisms evolve, the kidneys become more complex, making them more capable of adapting to changes in the body. Although this is beneficial in terms of mitigating the potential of developing CKD, this prevents the early detection of disease since the kidney is still capable of adapting to its condition during the early stages of CKD. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology and symptomatology of chronic kidney disease, as well as the biochemical and physiological adaptations that the body enforce to cope with a dysfunctional kidney. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) Pathophysiology Chronic Kidney Disease, according to chronic hypoxia hypothesis, starts with a postglomerular flow obstruction, affecting the associated glomerulus and injuring the peritubular capillary network (Fine and Norman, 2008). Thus, the defective arterial-venous oxygen shunting reduces parenchymal oxygen, facilitating the progress to chronic renal disease (Masaomi, 2006). The resulting hypoxic environment causes the fibrotic response characterizing CKD. In this disease, the extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulates enough to disrupt the normal architecture of renal tissue. Renal fibrosis, specifically glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, is the hallmark of the disease. The latter is characterized by an abundance of inflammatory cell infiltrates, increase in interstitial fibroblasts, and presence of myofibroblasts. The increase in number of fibroblasts is critical in the development of the disease as these cells are the major ECM-producing cells in tubulointerstitium. Specifically, ECM accumulation is caused by increased production and decreased turnover of matrix proteins by fibroblasts and proximal tubular epithelial cells. On the other hand, tubular atrophy is caused by apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. In summary, the development of fibrosis is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory, vasoconstrictive and profibrotic factors (Fine and Norman, 2008; Deng et al., 2010). Symptomatology CKD clinically manifests as a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for at least 3 months duration, usually with albuminuria. As a result, there is a decreased renal phosphate excretion, subsequently increasing serum phosphate levels. In effect, the conversion of vitamin D to active 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D is also decreased, depleting intestinal calcium absorption and serum calcium levels. This will then signal the release of parathyroid hormone (Abboud and Henrich, 2010). The loss of calcium levels, in turn, may cause the weight loss and loss of muscle mass seen among uremic patients (Rajan and Mitch, 2008). ADAPTATIONS TO CKD Protein catabolism Protein catabolism is usually seen with among individuals afflicted with CKD, this is because it is induced by inflammation, together with other conditions such as metabolic acidosis, insulin resistance, increased glucocorticoid production, and high serum concentrations of angiotensinogen II. The rapid degradation of proteins allows adaptation to rapid changes in physiological conditions. Such changes can happen in renal ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure Research Paper”, n.d.)
Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure Research Paper. Retrieved from
(Metabolic and Physiological Adaptations to Renal Failure Research Paper)
Metabolic and Physiological Adaptations to Renal Failure Research Paper.
“Metabolic and Physiological Adaptations to Renal Failure Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure

Chronic Renal Failure

...?Chronic Renal Failure Introduction The kidneys are considered as important parts of the body, playing roles essential to living. However, certain factors could lead to the damage of these organs, for instance chronic renal failure (CRF). Chronic renal failure, which is a gradual, irreversible deterioration of kidney function, progress in several years and usually asymptomatic and is detected only in the later course of the disease (Rolfes, Pinna, & Whitney, 2009, p. 880). Once kidney function has declined for a long period of time, the entire body is affected, resulting to systemic manifestations of CRF. Among several systemic manifestations is anemia, which could complicate the status of a client with renal disease. Pathogenesis... Anemia...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Dosing of cephalosporines in renal failure pateints

...?"Dosing of Cephalosporin in Renal Failure Patients" Background Kidneys are the imperative organs of the body, kidney diseases influence all the other organs as they regulate the fluid level of the body. Any kind of physiological alterations related with renal disease displays prominent outcomes on pharmacology of many drugs. It is therefore vital for the physicians to have an appropriate consideration of biochemical and physiological acts of drugs, for renal diseases. The chief constraint determining renal function relevant for drugs excreted through kidney are GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) and Creatinine clearance rate (Clcr). Aim- To understand the dosing of Cephalosporin in Renal failure patients. Method and Design Physical... . If...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Proposal

Nephrotic Syndrome/Renal Failure

...syndrome should be subjected to too much work and should be given time to rest. Another consideration is taking food with low salt content. Little salt should be used for the patient’s food to improve his appetite. Care planning for nephrotic syndrome disorder A care plan is a future tool for checking the recurrence of the disorder and the correct medication to control the disorder. Physical examinations should be performed to establish any presence of signs of the disorder. The medical history of any patient should be established especially if it related to weight gain or dysfunction of the renal system. The symptoms of the disorder like swellings and difficult in breathing should also be observed. The nephrotic...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Acute Renal Failure

...should serve as safe outlets for the patients to discuss their emotions and fears (Coresh, 2009). Considering the Health Perception and Health Management strategy as per Gordon’s health patterns, nurses are expected to offer information on treatment, management and new research options to the patient. Acute renal failure patients are normally affected by the feeling of anxiety as well as depression. The best way to deal with this situation is to talk to the patient about such feelings. By refereeing to the Coping and Stress Tolerance pattern strategy, it will be harder for the patient to adapt to renal failure if he or she keeps the anxiety and sadness...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Medical mangement of chronic renal failure

...? Medical Management of Chronic Renal Failure Lawrence Abah Northern Illinois Introduction Renal failure is also referred to kidney disease or kidney failure. Kidneys in the human body play the role of keeping the body clean and balance all its chemicals. Kidneys form urine through the absorption of water and waste from blood. Adolf, Schunke and Schunke (2004) outline other functions of the kidney as regulation of body blood pressure and acid base balance, and stimulating the formation of red blood cells. The normal breakdown of body tissues and food are responsible for formation of waste in the blood. After the body absorbs what is needed from food for...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper


...products, including urea and uric acid (Field,, 2010). Urine is also a by-product of the metabolism process which happens in the renal system. Aside from filtration and secretion processes, the kidney is also tasked with acid-base homeostasis (Desmukh and Wong, 2009). The kidneys and the lungs are the organs primarily involved in maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Such homeostasis is detected through stable pH values (Desmukh and Wong, 2009). The renal system is also very much involved in blood pressure regulation. The regulation of the pressure of the blood through the arterial walls is one of the main functions of the kidney (Dusso and Tokumoto, 2011). This process is...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Renal Failure

...Lived Experiences LIVED EXPERIENCES AND COPING STRATEGIES OF PATIENTS WITH RENAL FAILURE Introduction The road ahead of people experiencing serious illness is not straight nor smooth. At times, they may feel like simply quitting. On the other hand, restoring health is like a "moving forward process", in which the patients as well as their family may need to go through an emotional period. These experiences are often noted observed by people who suffered from some chronic illnesses such as diabetes, various type of cancer, arthritis and renal failure. An individual's diet, lifestyle and habits may contribute to acquiring various diseases. Countless studies have linked...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Acute renal failure

...Running head: ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Acute Renal Failure Affiliation Table of Contents Oliguria 3 Signs and Symptoms 3 Diagnostic Tests 4 To ascertain the presence of acute renal failure in patients, the following diagnostic tests are required: Blood tests that include "CBC, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including Ca and PO4); Urine tests include Na and creatinine concentration and microscopic analysis of sediment; acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and anemia." (Merck Manuals, 2005) The physician may also order an ultrasound scan to determine the degree of obstruction or damage to the kidneys. 4 Medical...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Renal Failure in Cirrhosis

...Renal Failure in Cirrhosis The article chosen for review is “Renal Failure in Cirrhosis”. It is authored by Gines Pere and Schrier Robert and published in the New England Medicine Journal (Gines & Schrier 1279). The article talks about renal failure attributed to liver cirrhosis. The article explores the pathophysiology of renal failure and evaluation of patients with renal failure in cirrhosis. Further, the article elaborates on the possible differential diagnosis of this condition, before delving into the management of kidney failure in cirrhosis. On...
2 Pages(500 words)Book Report/Review

Chronic Renal Failure and Dialysis

...Chronic Renal Failure Chronic Renal Failure and Dialysis Dialysis is carried out as critical life support in patients suffering from kidney failure. It is a mechanical way of cleansing the blood as well as chemicals and balance body fluids when the kidneys are not in a position to carry out important functions (Himmelfarb & Sayegh, 2010). An access to the vascular system is required to carry out the blood-cleansing function of the kidneys through dialysis. A graft is usually the access of choice when a patient needing dialysis has small veins. Several health care providers are needed in the care of a patient undergoing insertion of a dialysis graft (Daugirdas, 2011). A surgeon is needed to create the access using a synthetic tube... that is...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure for FREE!

Contact Us