Q1. Write a full description of the differences between Malignant and Benign neoplasm (you should have between 14-15 differences).In your essay you should draw up a table SIMILAR to the one below (Do not use the exact wording as the table below)…
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Extract of sample "PATHOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY MODEL DEGREE EXAM QUESTIONS"
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(write about 250 words)
The identifying characteristic of malignant neoplasms, with nomenclature of either carcinoma or sarcoma in their suffixes, is that they have ill-defined borders, and are able to infiltrate surrounding tissues and metastasize to other tissues of the body. Malignant tumors are also more prone to necrosis and hemorrhage, as compared to benign ones, growth named with an –oma attached at the end. As such, surgical treatment alone is not enough in treating the disease. Adjunct therapy may include radiation and chemotherapy. In contrast, benign neoplasms can be resolved through surgery because they are encapsulated and their growth is limited within the tissue of origin. Given these reasons, the prognosis of patients with malignant neoplasms is poorer than those with benign growths. Microscopic differences are also present. Malignant neoplasms are composed of cells with a higher mitotic activity compared to benign neoplasms. Thus, malignant tumors are typically larger than benign ones. They also look different from benign cells, which look like normal, differentiated cells, because they are undifferentiated and anaplastic, their nuclei are big and hyperchromatic and their shapes are irregular. The malignant cells of a tumor also vary in size and shape, as opposed to cells of a benign tumor which are isomorphic. Malignant cells also lose their polarity, resulting to disorganized growth. Benign tumor cells still have their polarity intact, thus they are still capable of organized growth. Cell derangement is not just limited to structure , but also to function. Malignant cells have an altered function already, as opposed to benign tumors that retain the function of the tissue of origin. Q2. Write about the sequence of events and processes of the pathogenesis of a typical carcinoma. You may use the flow diagram below as a guide: (write about 200 words) EVENTS AND PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN BREASTS NORMAL Nonproliferative PROLIFERATIVE CHANGES Caused by loss of growth inhibitory signals, increase in pro-growth signals, or decreased apoptosis DNA INSTABILITY AND ATYPICAL HYPERPLASIA Nuclear enlargement, irregularity and hyperchromasia as cells continue to proliferate HIGH GRADE DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU Solid sheets of pleomorphic cells with hyperchromatism and necrosis Abrogation of the basement membrane, angiogenesis, stromal invasion HIGH GRADE INVASIVE CARCINOMA Cell mass with ill-defined borders A stepwise process is needed in the
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