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Smoking Is a Public Health Issue - Term Paper Example

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Table of Contents 1. Research title 2. Introduction and background 3. Value of research 4. Aim of the research paper 5. Objective of the research paper 6. Research questions 7. Research structure/ methodology 8. Conclusion 9. References Word count: 1705 1…
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Smoking Is a Public Health Issue

Download file to see previous pages... Also, there are several public health measures in almost every country, and this effort draws attention to the fact that smoking is indeed an ethical issue (Public Health Chapter 6, 2011). A 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) report observed that tobacco use is a global epidemic with tobacco-related deaths reaching 5 million deaths a year, and which could increase to 8 million a year by 2030 (Donaldson et al., 2011). World Bank’s Health-Nutrition-Population (2003) report points to WHO’s (2002) statistics that there are about 1.2 billion regular smokers and of which, about one-third of whom are above the age of 15. Also, this report indicates that many among these do not know the harm caused by smoking in spite of the dearth of information available in this new age of globalization and Information Technology (IT). However, the common signage, “smoking is injurious to health” may have become a common practice among every nation and tobacco product manufacturers; but the fact remains that tobacco-induced deaths have risen 10-folds in the 21st century, as compared to those in the 20th century (Kohrman, 2010). More recent products of tobacco, like light cigarettes (Foulds et al., 2003) and electronic cigarettes (Cahn and Siegel, 2010) have been marketed as less harmful than the usual tobacco smoking involving combustion. This may be the case given the widespread ignorance on the harmful effects of tobacco among smokers and non-smokers, that smoking causes diseases like lung cancer, etc. and also causes premature death. This scenario has raised serious legal and ethical issues with smoking and manufacturing tobacco related products (World Bank’s Health-Nutrition-Population, 2003). A WHO (2002) report points that most of the over 1.4 million lung cancer deaths across the world are due to smoking and there is a significant number of never smokers too who are victims of this disease (Thun et al., 2008). Nicotine in tobacco is found to be addictive in nature and Royal College of Physicians has categorized this chemical substance as a drug of dependence or addiction, also considered a ‘harder’ drug than heroin or cocaine (Public Health Chapter 6, 2011). Notwithstanding the harmful effects of smoking among active smokers, smoking by active smokers is also found to affect others who are non-smokers or never smokers. Never smokers are life-long non-smokers, but even these individuals are adversely affected by the poisonous smoke that other active smokers release through combustion. There have been a number of studies on the mortality and morbidity among never smokers, of which Thun et al.’s (2008) study offers significant insights based on a study of 13 cohorts and 22 cancer registries from across ten countries over varying time periods and geographic regions. It has been found that this study analyses the trends of mortality and morbidity among a range of never smokers which are based on a significant number of variables, and this complex analysis needs to be used in particular contexts that help the research focus on the issue of public health. Hawamdeh et al. (2003) studied the effect of passive smoking on children’s health; Samet et al. (2009) studied the health risks for never smokers along with environmental risks due to smoking by active smokers, by referring to the high mortality and morbidity in the US due to lung cancer, of which it is found that 10-15 percent of lung cancer instances was also ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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