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Colonrectal Cancer - Research Paper Example

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Name of Student: Name of Professor: Subject: Human Anatomy Date: August, 2011 Colorectal Cancer: Discovering the Riddles Colorectal cancer now ranks third as the most commonly diagnosed cancer type in men and second in women in the US, with over 1.2 million new cancer cases and 608,700 deaths estimated to have occurred in 2008 (Jemal et…
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Colonrectal Cancer

Download file to see previous pages... With this finding, it is imperative to learn about the complexities of the disease, including the causes and risk factors, pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, and treatment modalities. Causes and Risk Factors Several causes have been attributed to cancer. It points out that there is no single factor that can cause cellular aberrations at the level of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Currently, medical research literature is saturated with its possible involvement in genetic, environmental, dietary, lifestyle, and overall health status. Some people are at increased risk because they have inflammatory bowel disease, a personal or family history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer, or genetic syndromes like familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (also known as Lynch syndrome) (“Screen for Life” 2). Advancing age is also a significant factor in the development of tumors that could later develop into colorectal cancer. Overall, 91% of new cases and 94% of deaths occur in individuals 50 and older. Based on the most recent data by the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (2008), the incidence rate of colorectal cancer is more than 14 times higher in adults 50 years and older than in those younger than 50. Furthermore, gender is considered as a risk factor for colorectal cancer. According to SEER (2008), colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates are 35% higher in men than in women. The reasons why risk is higher for men than for women are not completely understood, but may reflect higher frequency of abdominal obesity, smoking, and drinking in men, as well as hormonal differences (American Cancer Society 3). In the same research data by SEER (2008), race also plays a role in the statistics of mortality rates in colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates are highest in African American men and women. Moreover, several studies have documented that African American patients are more likely to be diagnosed after the disease has spread beyond the colon. In addition, African Americans with colorectal cancer are less likely than white patients to receive recommended surgical treatment and adjuvant therapy (Du et.al. 2007). Nevertheless, having a past medical history of colorectal cancer is a significant finding in redeveloping the disease. Precancerous and cancerous tumors surgically removed can reemerge due to irritation in the area. Also, virtually not every tumor is removed in a single operation, and smaller tumors may grow after the removal of the larger and most obvious ones. Lifestyle- related factors, including physical inactivity, smoking, high fat diet, obesity, alcohol- intake are also significant factors in developing cellular and tissue malignancy aside from colorectal cancer. Pathophysiology Like any other types of cancer, alteration in the normal physiologic process in the lower gastrointestinal tract is the culprit of colorectal cancer. Deletion of genes is linked to the transformation of normal colon epithelial cells to benign and malignant adenomas. Normally, the cell regeneration rate should occur at a rate almost equal to cell death. However, mutations of tumor suppressors, oncogenes, and repair genes cause an increase of underdeveloped and undifferentiated cells transforming gradually into tumors and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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