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Caesarean Section in Developed and Developing Countries - Essay Example

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Running Head: CAESAREAN SECTION IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Introduction The discovery of the Caesarean Section method of childbirth is a blessing to women who experience extra difficulty in giving birth the natural way. The CS procedure offers them, as well as to their babies, greater safety in delivery…
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Caesarean Section in Developed and Developing Countries
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Download file to see previous pages It seems, however, that the WHO’s declaration fell on deaf ears because today the statistics on CS rates are far beyond what it envisioned. The phenomenal increase in childbirths through the CS, particularly in developed countries, is indeed alarming considering that various studies have associated CS with maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In stark contrast with CS statistics in developed countries are statistics in least developing countries showing extremely low CS rates. The implication of the latter is that pregnant women in those countries are also potentially at risk because the CS procedure seems to be unavailable to women who are actually in need of it. Background: Caesarean Section Procedure CS is a procedure in childbirth in which the baby is delivered through an incision in the abdominal wall rather than through the vaginal opening of the mother. Normally, this procedure is employed when the natural method of giving birth poses danger to the life of the baby, but there are indications pointing that it is also being used other than for medical reasons. The CS procedure may be performed either through the lower segment section or the classical caesarian section. In the former, the incision is made below the navel, whether as a midline subumbilical abdominal incision or a transverse suprapubic incision. On the other hand, the latter entails a longitudinal incision in the superior intrauterine section (Hanretty 2009, pp. 315-316). From a medical perspective, the indications for C-section procedure include, among others, dystocia, fetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion, breech presentation, repeat caesarean and vaginal birth after caesarean or VBAC, placenta praevia and maternal diabetes. Dystocia is the general term used to refer to labor-related complications that may come in the form of extended labor or fetal position. It is considered as the number one reason for CS in the 1990s, which resulted in the recommendation of the National Institute of Health to examine this diagnostic indication more thoroughly. Fetal distress, on the other hand, refers to life-threatening condition of the baby during labor often manifested by its diminishing movement, irregular heartbeat and the passage of its bowel content into the amniotic fluid, among others. Fetal distress is also one of the top medical reasons for resorting to CS. In cephalopelvic disproportion, a cesarean section is conducted because delivery through the normal method is difficult because of the disproportion between the size of the pelvis and the baby while breech presentation refers to the abnormal position of the baby in the womb of the mother, which would necessitate the difficult delivery of having the baby’s feet come out first (Churchill 2009). Non-medical variables as underpinnings of births by CS have also been accounted for in the rise of the use of the procedure, especially in developed countries. Ghosh & James (2010) stated that the fact that high rates of CS rates observable in affluent groups and private hospitals are tell-tale signs of forces, other than medical, at play in decisions to resort to CS (22). These non-medical variables include the following: declining birth rate, which is said to urge consultants to aspire for better fetal outcomes through the employment of caesarean section; hospitalization, which would more likely result in an interventionist style of ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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