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The focus of this essay will be on the term ‘pharmacology’. Pharmacology refers basically to the branch of science, which deals with the study of medicines, focusing on the origin, chemical composition and therapeutic impact (The American heritage, 2004). More specifically, Pharmacology is the study of interaction between drugs and living beings (Hollinger, 2003). The word pharmacology has a Greek origin. According to Bukert (1985), in Greek religion, ‘Pharmakos’ referred to a human scapegoat. Whenever there was disaster or crises, the Greeks offered sacrifice of a human, as means of purification or purging the society. This act was religious, conducted as part of the Greek religion, to serve the purpose of societal catharsis. The ancient Greeks actually maintained outcasts at public expense to serve as human scapegoats when needed. Their underlying belief was that sacrificing these scapegoats would purify the society of evil and the gods will be pleased. The term ‘Pharmakos’ then underwent a lot of evolution overtime. At first the word became ‘Pharmakeus’ meaning a spell giving potion or poisoner. Another development in the term was into the word ‘Phamakon’ meaning purging, purifying or remedial intervention. From this, the term Pharmacology evolved (Hollinger, 2003).
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The purpose of this research is to investigate the following: drugs from natural sources; plants as a source of drugs ; microorganism drug sources; uses of natural products in drugs; drug design by computer modeling and strengths of computer modeling in drug design. The computer modeling in drug design holds a massive potential for the pharmaceutical industry
No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses.
Absorption of the drug is dependent upon the dose total, duration of exposure, concentration of the dose and the site of exposure (Kwan, 2001). The drug absorbed well in the gastrointestinal system but undergoes extensive first pass hepatic transformation.
The development process of drugs incorporates the effective composition of evaluated chemicals thereby ensuring that they provide a solution to the disease by either killing the germ causing the discomfort thereby curing the disease or suppressing the effects of the external substance as is the cases with retroviral drugs thereby causing relief to the patients. However, certain drugs react differently with the bodies thereby causing more harm to the patients. The study of safety pharmacology therefore investigates such and seeks to develop safe drugs that do not inconvenience users by reacting adversely with their bodies.
(6 marks) Body System Parasympathetic Activation Sympathetic Activation Clinical Symptom / Condition e.g.Heart - Rate Decreased heart rate Increased heart rate Bradycardia Heart – Force of Contraction Decreases cardiac contraction Increases the force of contraction Cardio vascular disorders like distorted cardiac rhythm Pupil Constricts the iris muscles to allow little light to pass to the pupil (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p.
He has given me great inspiration through his knowledge of Science research, giving me ideas on what to do further on in life. Paul has been a pleasure to work with, the assets I have gained have been invaluable and it has been experience, one of which I will never forget.
tural configuration and physicochemical properties for providing a desired therapeutic effect, but it is not necessary that it possess the optimal molecular framework and properties to ensure delivery at the targeted site of action. In such cases only a small fraction of the
This is because when Prasugrel’s cost effectiveness was studied against another drug, clopidogrel, the cost effectiveness of prasugrel was found to in an incremental ratio of $9727 per life-year gained (Roe et al. 2012, pp 1297-1309). Comparing this with
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