Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Developmental Disorders - Term Paper Example

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The essay “Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Developmental Disorders” will examine disorders involving brain. Until recently it was proved that they are associated with the underlying brain abnormalities. These psychological disorders in turn also affect the physical illnesses…
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Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Developmental Disorders
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Download file to see previous pages These psychological disorders in turn also affect the physical illnesses. The ancient view of psychological disorders may be justified on the basis of their presentation, as they manifest as disturbances in perception, memory, thinking and altered emotional state. However recent advances in research into the brain and its functioning have proved that there are established biologic basis behind these psychological disturbances. These pathologies of brain may be due to underlying structural abnormalities, altered ratios of gray and white matter in different areas of the brain, increase or decrease in the amounts of neurotransmitters, associated with factors like stress or substance abuse; or they can be due to organic lesions in the brain and the list goes on. Categorization of psychological disorders has thus been a challenge. It is due to the vast variety of underlying causes that give rise to these disturbances, and the need to standardize the terms defining these illnesses as it is considered overlap in their modes of presentation. Two systems of categorization of psychiatric disorders are currently in use. In America, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) or DSM- IV, proposed by American Psychiatric Association is used. The other classification given by World Health Organization is used more widely outside the USA and is known as International Classification of Disease (10th edition), or ICD-10. Psychiatric disorders span a complete spectrum of moods of mankind, ranging from depression at one end to the manic psychosis on the other and the bipolar disorder alternating between the former two. Any part of the brain can be affected and thus any aspect of life can be crippled by these psychoses. The person loses the ability to think clearly and respond appropriately, his learning abilities can suffer as his perception is impaired, his communication skills worsen and he becomes emotionally wretched. These people have trouble adjusting to society, coming up with their personal needs and building healthy relationships as they are often intimidating to the masses. Such people pose a challenge to the society. Therefore identifying the people with various types of psychoses and understanding their condition and appropriate management of their condition is important. Psychosis is defined as, ‘thought disorder in which reality testing is grossly impaired’. The attacks are accompanied by hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations refer to the perceptions of the patient without any external sensory stimuli. They can involve any of the five basic human senses of perception, but most commonly involve visual or auditory pathways. The patient feels that he is hearing different sorts of voices when there may be no one present or he may perceive to see different faces or demonic figures. Type of hallucinations experienced by the patient may give a clue to the underlying disease. Auditory hallucinations generally accompany schizophrenia, while hallucinations involving other senses especially vision and taste point towards organic disease etiology like delirium or temporal lobe epilepsy. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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