An exploration of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical antifungal agents on Candida albicans is discussed. The history of the organism is given, in addition to the most efficacious drugs by which the pathogen can be controlled. …
Download file to see previous pages...
INTRODUCTION: The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is known to be among the most versatile opportunistic pathogens of humans. Several organ systems can be targeted by this fungal pathogen; though infection of the gastrointestinal tract is very common. This is due to the organism's preference for anaerobic growth conditions. (Dumitru, et al. 2004) In certain patients, accumulation of plaque biofilm in the mouth can also provide a reservoir for this organism, which if left unchecked can spread beyond the mouth and colonize other organs, leading to widespread, systemic infection. (Yang et al. 2010) The Candida albicans fungal pathogen has been the subject of extensive experimentation. A great deal of information has been published on the cellular biological and molecular functions extant in the morphological development of Candida albicans. Much work historically has gone into the elucidation of the developmental anatomy of this organism; to cultivate an understanding of where and how that growth might be most vulnerable to environmental or pharmaceutical suppression. Developmental Anatomy Researchers have gathered much data on the Stationary-phase, yeast-form cells of C. albicans, which can be encouraged to form hyphal germ tubes within a range of different growth media (Odds, 1985). During the process of germ tube development, new cell wall material is formed primarily at the hyphal apex where minimal lateral expansion occurs. Although yeast-form cells experience an additional component of non-specific wall creation that promotes lateral expansion of the cells towards an oval-like shape (Staebell & Soll, 1985).
The study of transitional stages between parallel-sided hyphal-forms and swollen yeast-type cells suggest that the regulation of lateral wall synthesis is a vital determining factor of future cell shape (Sevilla & Odds, 1986). Hypha-form cell walls possess a higher chitin content compared with those of yeast-type walls (Chattaway et al., 1968) and researchers have found that chitin synthase activity is greater in developing C. albicans germ tubes than with yeast-form cells (Chiew et al., 1980). For hypha-type cells the overall cytoplasmic volume seems to remain constant compared with that of the parent yeast cells. The cytoplasm remains in proximity with the developing hyphae-apex, so the resulting hyphae will be composed of nucleated but vacuolated and therefore collapsible cell compartments behind their growing tips (Sevilla & Odds, 1986). Researchers propose the possibility that regulation of wall structure and thus cell shape is a phenotypic expression as opposed to the direct result of variabilities in gene transcription, as older theories suggested. (Soll, 1984). It is clear that germ tube maturation will still proceed despite the presence of actinomycin D (Oliver et al., 1982) though this substance has been found to block the induction of normal enzymatic pathways (Sevilla & Odds, 1986), and maturation will proceed even in the face of progressively diminishing rate of protein synthesis (Torosantucci et al., 1984). Soll and colleagues have accounted for developmental milestones for C. albicans in terms of temporal and spatial controls of processes such as the emergence of novel cell wall material, formation of the septum, and cell wall synthesis (Soll, 1984), (Staebell & Soll, 1985). Deviations have been found in hyphal diameters between cells grown based upon growth media, suggesting that
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The target series of compounds was produced through reductive amination between four amines and a dialdehyde produced from α-D-glucopyranose. The amines that were used in the project are: butyl amine, benzyl amine, L-phenylalanine and Tyrosine-OMe.
The Effect of Recession on Dividend Policy
Analysis and Discussion
The research methodology adopted sought to answer the research questions in an attempt fulfill the research objectives these are: to determine whether there was a change in capital structure during the recession and whether or not this resulted to a change in the dividend payout, to determine whether there was a change in the payout ratios of companies in Saudi Arabia after the recession.
The basis of the technique is to ‘increase the quality of awareness of one’s everyday activities’ (Farlex, 2013). The aim of this study is to research the effectiveness of the mindfulness based approach to stress and fatigue management in cancer patients.
A Study of the Age Effect on M-Commerce Retail Customers Certification I hereby declare that this dissertation is original and any material or ideas used in this dissertation are properly credited and cited using APA referencing format. Abstract This is a quantitative research in which 225 mobile consumers in the US participate in two questionnaires designed to ascertain the effect to age on mobile commerce usage.
Application of monoclonal antibodies for target approach of cancer therapy because of hybridoma technology which has contributed to the production of monoclonal antibodies. Strategies for this therapeutic application are destruction of cancer cells that are directed by immune reaction, interference of the therapy with the growth and differentiation of cancer cells, transport of anti-cancer agents to the cancer cells based on antigen epitopes, anti-idiotype vaccination and finally, development of humanised mouse monoclonal antibodies through genetic engineering.
Topic: witnessing domestic violence: its effect on children Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction Background and Rationale for Research Research Objectives Research Strategy Chapter outline Chapter 2: Domestic Violence: How Common is it and Do Children Witness It?
Introduction 12 2.1. The Context 13 2.2. The Nature of Outreach Programs 17 2.3. The Necessary Elements of Outreach 19 2.4. Forms of Outreach Programs 20 2.5. A Brief Look at the Sources of Hospital Revenues 22 2.6. A Brief View of Hospital Expenses 24 2.7.
15 2.6 Types of Advertising and their effects on business 17 2.7 Traditional Advertising Methods vs. Modern Methods 18 2.7.1 Online Advertising 18 2.7.2 Mobile Advertising 19 2.7.3 Social Media and Business Promotion 20 2.8 Studies on Branding and Advertising 20 3.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 23 3.1 Research Philosophy 23 3.2 Research Design - Qualitative Approach 23 3.3 Types of Data - Primary and Secondary Data 24 3.4 Data Collection Tools 24 3.4.1 Interview for the Study 25 3.5 Analysis of Findings 26 3.6 Sampling Strategy 27 3.6.1 Characteristics of Sample 28 3.7 Ethical Considerations 28 4.1 Findings from the Interviews conducted with New Businesses 30 4.2 Findings from the Interviews conducted
Drug abuse issues have been integral to the sporting fraternity since historical times. Specifically, the athletics disciplines have reported the most cases of drug-related problems as sportsmen seek to improve their performance and to win medals and titles. Athletes have only created more problems for themselves.
6 Pages(1500 words)Dissertation
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Dissertation on topic Effect of antifungal drugs on Cadida Albicans for FREE!