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Questions on Medecine - Essay Example

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Question 1: The respiratory system cannot work without the help of the cardiovascular system. The mammalian heart has double circulation. These two circulations are concerned with oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated blood towards the lungs via the pulmonary artery…
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Questions on Medecine

Download file to see previous pages... Since CO2 has a higher concentration in the blood than in the alveolar cavity, a diffusion gradient is formed, causing the CO2 to move out of the blood and then exhaled. There is a higher concentration of O2 in the alveolar cavity than in the blood entering the capillary network. Oxygen dissolves in the film of water found on the surface of the alveolus and then this dissolved oxygen diffuses across the epithelial cells of the alveoli and the capillaries into the blood plasma. This oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells, where it combines with hemoglobin to form ox hemoglobin. (Gillian Pocock, 2006) This oxygenated blood flows back into the left atrium via the pulmonary vein where the heart will pump the blood around the body again to supply oxygen to the respiring cells, thereby completing the second part of its circulation. Without the proper functioning of the cardio vascular system, the lungs will be unable to perform their primary function, i.e. to convert deoxygenated blood into oxygenated blood. References Gillian Pocock, C. D. R., 2006. Human physiology: the basis of medicine. 3, illustrated ed. s.l.:Oxford University Press. Question 2-Homeostasis: Negative feedback is a mechanism used to bring the system back to its normal state by triggering a counter response. The negative feedback mechanism in all living things is homeostasis. This mechanism helps to control and regulate the internal environment of any organism. The internal environment of any multi cellular organism is tissue fluid that bathes the body cells. Keeping the conditions of the tissue fluid such as its pH temperature and salt content at relatively constant levels is called homeostasis. Example 1: One of the examples of the negative feedback mechanism is the regulation of blood glucose levels. The normal blood glucose level is 90mg/100cm3 of blood. In the pancreas there are special cells called islets of Langerhans that respond to the glucose levels in the blood. Alpha cells of the pancreas detect low blood glucose levels and the beta cells detect high blood glucose levels. Alpha cells respond by secreting glucagon that converts glycogen in the liver into glucose. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by increasing the break down of glycogen into glucose, and by making sure that more glucose is released form the liver. While the beta cells respond by secreting insulin that causes the liver to increase the amount of glucose converted into glycogen and start storing it. Beta cells also increase the rate at which glucose is transported to target cells, and increases its utilization in ATP-synthesis .These are self-regulatory negative feedback mechanisms thus causing the blood glucose levels to return back to normal. (Chiras, 2011) Example 2: The regulation of body temperature is also achieved by homeostasis. The changes in the external environment are detected by nerve endings in our skin and the nerve impulses are sent to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that acts as a control center. If there is an increase in temperature, the hypothalamus will then send nerve impulses to the sweat glands of the body to cause more sweat to reach the sweat ducts, and as the sweat reaches the sweat pores it evaporates causing the body to cool down as the latent heat is given off to the environment. The arteries dilate as well and more blood flows into the capillary networks as a result more heat is lost to the surrounding. As a result the body temperature return ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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