StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Hw4 - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This exercise also provides experience with graphing and concepts of scale.
Procedure: The table given on the next page contains depth data for a…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
Hw4
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Hw4"

Ocean Basin Profile March, EAPS 10000 Y01 Planet Earth online Homework Assignment #4 (30 points) Ocean Basin Depth Profile (Trans-Atlantic Ocean Depth Profile –
Cape Hatteras, North America to Cape Blanc, Africa) and Interpretation
Name: _________________________
Part I – Ocean basin depth profile – Atlantic Ocean basin
Objective: Plot a bathymetric (ocean depth) profile across the Atlantic Ocean to examine the typical shape of the ocean basins. This exercise also provides experience with graphing and concepts of scale.
Procedure: The table given on the next page contains depth data for a profile across the Atlantic Ocean from Cape Hatteras, North America to Cape Blanc, Africa. Plot the 61 distance and depth points on the attached graph, then connect the dots to form a bathymetric profile or ocean basin topography profile. (If you wish to plot by computer, you can obtain the data at: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/EAS100online/OceanProfileDataTable.xls. You can produce an Excel plot, or use other software, to paste into your Hwk 4 submission. If you plot by computer, please be sure to make the graph look similar to that shown on page 3.) Note that the distance scale is in kilometers and the depth scale is in meters. Thus, the depth data are vertically exaggerated (by a factor of 200) which enhances the subtle features of the ocean basin topography. A plot at true (1 to 1) scale will be provided later to show the actual topography. Vertical exaggeration is useful to display profile data when the horizontal extent of the data is very large and when the profile is relatively smooth. The data that are given in the table are sampled at a large interval (100 km between data points) and, thus, the bathymetric profile is only a rough approximation of the true ocean basin topography. However, the main features of the ocean basin are visible on the graph. A similar graph is shown in Figure 9.15 of L&T, 2014 and L&T, 2011. For additional information, refer to pages 302-312, Lutgens & Tarbuck, 2014 (pages 265-270 of L&T, 2011; pages 250-257, L&T, 2008).
Questions:
1. On the graph, label the following features of the ocean basin: continental slope, abyssal plain, mid-Atlantic ridge.
2. What is the approximate ocean depth at the mid-Atlantic ridge and the relief of the ridge (difference in depths, or elevations, between the top of the ridge and the adjacent, relatively flat ocean bottom)?
Ocean depth at mid-Atlantic ridge 6200 M
Relief (difference in ocean depth between the ridge and the abyssal plain)
of the mid-Atlantic ridge 200M
3. What is the approximate slope of the west flank of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (measure the difference in ocean depth along the profile between about 2200 km and 3200 km distance and divide by the difference in distance, 3200-2200 or 1000 km. Be sure that both measurements, differences in depth, and distance, are in the same units, either km or m. The resulting number will be the slope expressed as a ratio. The slope can also be given as a percent or as an angle. (Information (review) on calculating the slope of a line: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/Slope.pdf.)
Approximate slope of the west side of the mid-Atlantic ridge _4200 M
Dots can be copied and pasted to plot points.
Part II – Analyzing the ocean depth and age adjacent to the Mid-ocean ridge.
In Part I of this exercise, we examined the depth of the Atlantic Ocean basin and observed the prominent mid-ocean ridge (MOR) near the center of the ocean basin. The MOR is also known to be an area of shallow earthquake and volcanic activity and is interpreted as a spreading center where new oceanic lithosphere is formed. The newly formed oceanic crust and uppermost mantle then moves away from the ridge as part of the plate tectonic processes. The uplift of the MOR is interpreted to be due to rising hot material that forms the new ocean lithosphere. As observed in the ocean profile, the ocean depth increases away from the MOR. This subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere could be cause by cooling of the lithosphere as it moves away from the ridge and area of rising hot material. We can examine this process using ocean crust age and depth data. In the figure below, the age of the oceanic crust for a part of the North Atlantic Ocean is shown by the colors. The bold line is the Atlantic Ocean profile used in Part I. The numbers above the profile to the east of the MOR are interpreted age boundaries in millions of years. The ocean age information is derived from radiometric dating of ocean crust samples from deep drilling, dating of index fossils in sediments overlying the newly-formed crust, and the paleomagnetic reversals time scale. A color version of this map is available at http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/OceanAge2.pdf.
Ocean crust ages for a portion of the North Atlantic Ocean (from http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/crustageposter.gif).
In the Table on the next page, the first two columns show distance from the ridge and ocean depth. The ocean depth data are the average of the depths on the two sides (west and east of the ridge) of the MOR. Using the distance scale on the OceanAge.pdf image (http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/OceanAge2.pdf, zoom to 130% so that a metric ruler can be used with a scale of 1.0 cm = 200 km), estimate by interpolation the ocean crust age at 100 km increments out to 1200 km from the ridge and record the results in the Table. Then, take the square root of the age data and record the results in the last column. The first two age and square root of age data points, for 0 and 100 km distance, have already been entered in the Table. (If you wish to plot the graphs on pages 5 and 6 using your computer, you can obtain the data [see data Table on page 5] at: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/EAS100online/OceanFloorAgeData.xls. You can produce an Excel plot, or use other software, to paste into your Hwk 4 submission. If you plot by computer, please be sure to make the graphs look similar to those shown on pages 5 and 6.)

Depth (m)
Age (My)
SQRT Age (my)1/2
2500
0
0.00
3100
5
2.24
3850
10
3.16
4200
12
3.46
4550
16
4
4800
20
4.47
5200
22
4.69
5450
25
5
5500
27
5.19
5550
29
5.39
6000
31
5.57
5850
33
5.74
5800
35
5.92


Next, plot the ocean crust age and depth data on the graph below. Use a dot () for each age vs. depth data point. How does the depth change with increasing age?
From this graph of depth against age, as the age decreases the depth increases and vice versa
 Dots, straight and curved lines can be copied and pasted on graph. Lines can be stretched, etc.
On the graph below, plot the square root of age and depth data. Use a dot () for each SQRT (age) vs. depth data point. How does the depth change with increasing SQRT (age)?
From this graph sqrt of Age against depth as the age increases, the rate of depth also increases and vice versa.
 Dots, straight and curved lines can be copied and pasted on graph. Lines can be stretched, etc.
A theoretical cooling model of the oceanic lithosphere can be derived from the theory of the flow of heat through solids. The theory indicates that the ocean depth should increase away from the ridge approximately following the equation: Depth = slope • SQRT (age) + y-intercept. The theory is further explained by the following:
“Newly formed oceanic lithosphere moves away from the mid-ocean ridge and cools as it is removed from underlying sources of heat. Cooling has two effects: 1. lithosphere contracts and increases in density; 2. the depth of the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary is controlled by temperature and cooling causes the lithosphere to increase in thickness away from the mid-ocean ridge. Cooling and contraction of the lithosphere cause a progressive increase in the depth to the top of the lithosphere away from the ridge. This is accompanied by a decrease in heat flow.” (from: http://www.noc.soton.ac.uk/soes/teaching/courses/oa405/GY405/handouts/Bending.htm)
Draw a “best fit” straight line through the data points in the SQRT (age) vs. Depth graph (above). Calculate the slope and intercept coefficients of the line and record them here (the form of this equation is y = bx + a, where y is depth, b is the slope, x is SQRT(age), and a is the y-intercept). (Information on calculating the slope of a line: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/Slope.pdf.)

Depth = _1.25_____ • SQRT (age) + _5200__=___ (Depth is in m, age is in m.y.; put b in the 1st space, a in the 2nd)
The SQRT (age) vs. depth data display a straight line relationship that is consistent (in shape and values of the coefficients) with the ocean lithosphere cooling model (and the physics of heat conduction), and thus provides strong evidence supporting the sea floor spreading process and plate tectonics theory. A classic research paper by Parsons and Sclater (1977) first described this relationship. You can view the paper at: http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~johne/teaching/pdfs/parsons-sclater77.pdf. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Hw4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/geography/1653251-hw4
(Hw4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words)
https://studentshare.org/geography/1653251-hw4.
“Hw4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/geography/1653251-hw4.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Hw4

Empirical analysis of determinants of audit fees in China

...?Empirical Analysis of Determinants of Audit Fees in China Table of Contents 4. Analysis 3 4 Introduction 3 4.2 Descriptive Statistics of whole sample 3 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of sub-sample 5 4.4 Correlation Analysis of whole sample 8 4.5 Correlation Analysis of sub-sample 9 4.6 Regression Analysis of the whole sample 13 4.6 Regression Analysis of the Sub Sample 14 4.7 Interpretation 16 Reference List 18 4. Analysis 4.1 Introduction This section deals with the findings and analysis of the collected data. The analysis is based on descriptive, correlation and regression analysis of the data that has been collected by using various databases. The data like financial characteristics of the listed companies, audit fees, audit... Analysis of...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay

Phoenix mission

...?First & Semester: Email Address: SID Section (e.g. TR 11 HW3 HW4 FINAL Requirements Approved Topic   Cover page   Abstract   Detailed Outline T.O.C. T.O.C   Proposal (500 words ~1 pg.) Full paper (3000 words ~10 pg.) Full paper (3000 words ~10 pg.)   References (min 5) References (min 5) References (min 5)     Hw3 attached Hw3 attached       Hw4 attached Contents and Organization:       Purpose clearly stated       Logical flow       Contents       Titles and subtitles before sections N/A     Supporting Material       Appropriate refs.       Refs. Cited in text N/A     Language       Spelling       Grammar       Comments     Grade /10 /10 /15 Table Of Contents Outline………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Proposal... & Semester: Email Address:...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay

Structural equation modeling

...Structural equation modeling Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds its essential focus on the examination of a set of regression equations concurrently and is thus an expansion of general linear model since As compared to multiple regression, the SEM holds an advantage of higher flexibility in area of assumptions. This benefit of SEM is seen particularly in the light of multicollinearity. Another important advantage of SEM involves the exploitation of confirmatory factor analysis. This advantage results in reduction in the measurement error by making use of multiple indicators per latent variable. In addition, the SEM holds the capability to test models with multiple dependent variables. It also holds the capability to model... equation...
11 Pages(2750 words)Research Paper

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

...First & Semester: Email Address: SID Section (e.g. TR 11 HW3 HW4 FINAL Requirements Approved Topic   Cover page   Title Title Abstract   Detailed Outline T.O.C. T.O.C   Proposal (500 words ~1 pg.) Full paper (3000 words ~10 pg.) Full paper (3000 words ~10 pg.)   References (min 5) References (min 5) References (min 5)     Hw3 attached Hw3 attached       Hw4 attached Contents and Organization:       Purpose clearly stated       Logical flow       Contents       Titles and subtitles before sections N/A     Supporting Material       Appropriate refs.       Refs. Cited in text N/A     Language       Spelling       Grammar       Comments     Grade /10 /10 /15 Name: SID: Section: Recent discovering of planets outside the Solar System using...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Hypothetical population

... HYPOTHETICAL POPULATION The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium concept is a rule that s that the generic variation in a particular population will stay constant from a single generation to another in the nonexistence of disturbing factors. The nonexistent disturbing factors in the HWE comprise of non-random mating, selections, genetic drift, gene flow, and limited size of the population, which have briefly been explained later in this work. However, it is important to note that outside of the lab environment, a single or more of the disturbing factors are always in operation making the HWE very improbable in nature. Even so, the genetic equilibrium idea forms a primary principle or rule of population genetics, which provides a baseline... HYPOTHETICA...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Hw4

...11.3 Soft Skills: Checking Job Ads What soft skills do employers request when they list job openings in your field? Field:(business law) 231 Your Task. Check job listings in your field at an online job board. Visit a job board such as Monster, College Recruiter, CareerBuilder. com, or Yahoo Careers. Follow the instructions to search job categories and locations. Study many job listings in your field. Then pre-pare a list of the Then prepare a listof the most frequently requested soft skills in your area of interest. Next to each item on the list, indicate how well you think you would qualify for the skill or trait mentioned. Your instructor may ask you to submit your findings and/ or report to the class. If you are not satisfied... Soft...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

New Horizon mission

...First & John Smith Semester: Fall Email Address: xxxx@xxxx.com SID xxxxxxx Section (e.g. TR 11 MW12:30, MW3:30 or TR11  HW3 HW4 FINAL Requirements Approved Topic   Cover page   Title: New Horizon Mission Title Abstract   Detailed Outline T.O.C. T.O.C   Proposal (300 words ~1+ pg.) Full paper (2500 words ~10 pg.) Full paper (3000 words ~10 pg.)   References: 5 References: 5 References: 5     Hw3 attached Hw3 attached       Hw4 attached Contents and Organization:       Purpose clearly stated       Logical flow       Contents       Titles and subtitles before sections N/A     Supporting Material       Appropriate refs.       Refs. Cited in text N/A     Language       Spelling       Grammar       Comments     Grade /10 /10 /15 Title: New...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

HW4 MGM

... Coca-Cola Company and Social Responsibility Coca-Cola is one of the biggest companies around the globe with comprehensive corporate social responsibility strategies. The company acknowledges the necessity to embrace sustainability in the future, which calls for acting beyond minimizing the impacts of its activities on its surroundings. In its quest to be a socially responsible company, Coca-Cola has put in place sustainability strategy, which encompasses waste reduction, waste-water management strategies energy conservation schemes and community development initiatives. The company works in close association with the communities in which it operates to ensure economic and social well-being of individuals in those communities... Coca-Cola...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Astr hw4

...Astronomy 123: Fourth Homework Assignment The recent supernova was experienced 140 years ago as measured by the by the time framework of the earth. The last explosion on earth happened and it was not clear when used the optical light since the explosion happened right at the centre of the galaxy thus closer. The supernovas appear with an estimation of three explosions in every century having large margins. Incase the rates estimated are right there should be explosions of 10 supernovas that happen to be young in age than the Cassiopeia A. the tracking of the remnant explosions begun in the year 1985. With the use of the VLA, the remnant G 1.9 and 0.3 that was small in size exploded while near to the center of the galaxy... Fourth Homework...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Astr hw4

...Astronomy 123: Fourth Homework Assignment The supernova is expected to explode thrice per century while increasing the margins. With the rates in the occurrence of the supernova a number of 8 to 10 appearances beginning from the Cassiopeia. The explosions started in 1985 with the remnant of the supernova exploding. By using the VLA, the first explosion occurred 140 years ago. The next explosion occurred after 25 years. As the explosions occur the size increases. This creates a clear report that the galaxy is really becoming deficient. 2. In the theory of the existence of water, the volcano produces the water forming asteroid and meteoroids. With the activities that occur in the volcano that is the first theory, the earth... 123: Fourth...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Hw4 for FREE!

Contact Us