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Unnecessary - Admission/Application Essay Example

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A demographic transition model (DTM) refers to a transition model that seeks to explain the transformation of various countries from having high rates of birth and death rates to low birth and death rates (Hauser 1994). In developed nations, this transition started during the…
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Demographic Transition Model A demographic transition model (DTM) refers to a transition model that seeks to explain the transformation of various countries from having high rates of birth and death rates to low birth and death rates (Hauser 1994). In developed nations, this transition started during the eighteenth century and continues to date. On the contrary, less developed nations began the transition much later and are still in the middle of the initial stages of this model (Hauser 1994).
Countries where the DTM has been applied most closely include; Serbia and Montenegro. In both of these nations, DTM is in its final phase. In Serbia for instance DTM begun in the middle half of the 19th century while in Montenegro it begun during the initial periods of the last century.
Key stages of the DTM
DTM has five main stages. Stage one is linked to pre modern periods, and is essentially characterized by equilibrium between death rates and birth rates. The second stage perceives a growth in the population that results from a reduction in the death rates while the rates of birth remain considerably high. The third stage moves the population towards stability via a reduction in the birth rates. In essence, this shift contradicts Malthus’s conviction that alterations in the rates of death were the primary cause for population change. Stage four is essentially characterized by stability. Under this stage, the age structure of the population has become older (Hauser 1994). Stage five is the last stage of negative growth rates implying that the numbers of births are less in comparison to the number of deaths.
Key characteristics of each of the DTM stages
Stage one
In this stage, death and birth rates are both high. Their net balance results in an almost insignificant population growth rates.
Stage two
This stage is essentially characterized by a decrease in death rates that are as a result of two factors; increase in the food supply that come as a result of increased yields when agricultural practices were improved during the 18th century in the Agrarian revolution, and second, there were considerable improvements in the public health that lowered mortality, specifically in childhood.
Stage three
This stage is mainly characterized by a decline in childhood deaths.
Stage four
This stage is mainly characterized by fertility rates that fall below replacement levels and the population begins to decline at a more rapid pace.
Stage five
This stage is mainly characterized by negative growth rates implying that the numbers of births are less in comparison to the number of deaths.
The key factors that allowed these countries to shift from one stage to the next
Key factors that facilitated the move of these nations from one stage to another are essentially dependent on economic and social factors. For example improved education, and alteration in the role of women for example emancipation had a considerable impact on the population patterns because these are factors that directly affect the modes of living of the respective people in terms of enhanced healthcare and better diet.
An assessment of how well the DTM applies to today’s less developed countries (LDCs)
Less developed nations started the transition later and are still in the midway of the primary stages of the DTM model.
Reasons for this assessment
There has been a faster decline in death rates. Nonetheless, these rapid improvements have taken place in areas where female literacy has been advocated for. Secondly, there has been a considerably longer lag amid the reduction in death rates and birth rates  (Hauser 1994). An alteration in the fertility requires a more conscious effort than mortality change and requires both behavioral and social changes that extremely conflict with the existing traditional values (Hauser 1994). This has occurred at a slower pace in less developed countries because economic change has been delayed in most situations.
DTM as a tool for determining and explaining various populations’ patterns is a more dynamic procedure, explaining various changes through specified time periods. It is important if not necessary for most countries to follow and adapt this parameter in order to be able to explain various population patterns.
Hauser, D. (1994). The Study of Population: An Inventory and Appraisal. New York: McGraw Hill. Read More
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