StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations as climate forcing f - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
SOLAR VARIABILITY, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND GREEN-HOUSE GASES Institution Course Date Solar variability, Volcanic Eruptions and Green-house Gases Introduction Climate is the prevailing weather condition of a given geographical region over a given period of time (Korte and Constable, 2005)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.1% of users find it useful
Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations as climate forcing f
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations as climate forcing f"

Download file to see previous pages Climate change is brought about by many factors. These include circulation of the oceanic processes, solar variations, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonic activities and human factors. Studies to determine the level of climate change is done using observation and theorems. Factors that affect climate are called climate forcings (Yang et al,2000) .They are internal and external climate forcings; these forcings affect some parts of the environment faster or slower depending on the position of the given atmospheric location. The ocean is known to respond slowly to climate forcings. Forcings are either internal or external depending on the genesis of the process (Valet, 2003). Internal forcings include natural processes within the atmosphere like volcanic eruptions, tectonic plate movements, variations in solar radiations and concentration of greenhouse gas effects (Geel et al., 1999). External forcings are human activities that lead to the emission of dangerous gases into the atmosphere. There also are climate change feedbacks which are elements that act in three ways to climatic forcings (Orr, 1999). It can be sudden, where there occurs a sudden cooling effect occasioned by a high presence of volcanic ash in the atmosphere which will reflect sunlight and heat. It can be gradual, in this case, the water bodies become warm slowly; and then overflow. The third possibility is a combination of both fast and slow reactions, in such a situation a sudden cooling of ice is experienced in the Arctic Ocean followed by a sudden meltdown of the ocean ice (Grootes and Stuiver, 1997). Currently, we are in a period between two ice ages, and if there are no other influences, another ice age will occur in a time scale of thousands of years. The rate of global temperature change linked to astronomical forcing is approximated to be in the order of a few tenths of a degree Celsius per thousand years (Washington et al., 2001). Solar Variations Information on solar changes is obtained from cosmogenic radionuclide records. The variables used in this study illustrate how changes over periods of time have influenced the climatic conditions of given geographical regulates and the production of carbon dioxide. (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). High powered galactic cosmic rays induce a reactivity series of nuclear reactions that produce cosmogenic radionuclide in the atmosphere. When elements carrying high energy hit oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere, Be (beryllium) is formed. Further reactions of this element with nitrogen form slow neutrons. The sun regulates the intensity of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) that reaches the earth’s surface and in this way, affects the production of radionuclides in the atmosphere. After Be is formed, it combines with aerosols and hangs in the atmosphere for one to two years (Mc Hargue and Damon, 1997). Disparities in 10Be records between Antarctica and Greenland during 1950 AD have led to differing conclusions regarding solar activity in this period (Lean, 1991). According to Greenland records, there was low 10 Be production after 1950 AD but in the Antarctic records, the trend is opposite. These 11-year averages of sunspot data and the neutron monitor show ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic Essay”, n.d.)
Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/geography/1469955-critically-assess-the-importance-of-solar
(Critically Assess the Importance of Solar Variability, Volcanic Essay)
Critically Assess the Importance of Solar Variability, Volcanic Essay. https://studentshare.org/geography/1469955-critically-assess-the-importance-of-solar.
“Critically Assess the Importance of Solar Variability, Volcanic Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/geography/1469955-critically-assess-the-importance-of-solar.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations as climate forcing f

The Business of Ethics: The Importance of Working With Integrity

1), “The subject of business ethics is one that has a long history of debate in business, academic, and public circles. Views vary on the extent of ethical responsibility that businesses should exercise. The minimalist position, long espoused by Milton Friedman, holds that the only ethical responsibility a business has is to make a profit within the confines of the law. In a free-market society, this single-minded pursuit of profit-making is ultimately in the best interest of society because market forces will maximize the economic well-being of societys members. Furthermore, Friedman argues that corporations are legal, not moral entities, and hence have no ethical obligations.”
However, most people would disagree...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

The Importance of Strategy Process

This is so done because the advantage is much needed in such a scenario and it will help the organization to grow beyond the anticipated proportions. Building and indeed sustaining this advantage is a very significant exercise when one speaks of a competitive advantage in the first place. Competitive advantage is something that is built over time and requires synchronization between the tactics, activities and the overall strategy of the company which is producing the product(s). Competitive advantage is developed when there is a differential undertaking on the part of the customer. This could be in the form of lower prices than the competitors, better quality, efficient sales services, and support and a number of other features....
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

The Importance of Place in a Groups Ethnic Identity

His work spans a broad range of subjects from ethnography among peasants in Algeria, to sociological analysis of nineteenth-century artists and writers, education, language, consumer and cultural tastes, religion, and science in modern French society. (p. 2)
Bourdieu’s major theoretical contributions to sociology are his notion of habitus and its associated concepts of social field and agency. Given the breadth of literature and uses of examples that Bourdieu produced in order to articulate these concepts, there is much room for interpretation of what they meant and how much social agency they afford to individuals. Nonetheless, this paper will explore the habitus, field, and agency in terms of the fluid dynamics of the...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

The Importance of Employee Empowerment in the Global World

Empowerment is the authority to make decisions within one’s area of operation without having to get approval; from anyone else. Here the operatives are encouraged to use their initiative to do things the way they like. To this end, the employees are given not just authority but resources as well so that they not only take decisions but implement them quickly. This empowerment means giving the employees the authority to make decisions and providing them with financial resources to implement these decisions (Koch & Godden, 1997 11).
Employee participation and empowerment participation means sharing the decision making power with the lower ranks of an organization in an appropriate manner (Lashley & McGoldrick, 199...
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment

The Bhopal Gas Disaster

In the incident, a toxic gas called methyl isocyanate (MIC) weighing around 42 tonnes was released into a city with a population estimated at 500,000 people. The incident was devastating: the immediate death toll was 2,259 people. Generally, it is estimated that 8,000 people died in the first two weeks and more than 8,000 died later from gas-related complications. It is believed this is the worst industrial incident of the recent past.
The Union Carbide India was a company that produced carbonyl pesticide, which is an intermediate product of methyl isocyanate. The methyl isocyanate is a toxic material but cheaper compared to other raw materials that could have been used. However, the chemical involved in this incident was a c...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

The Effects of Financial Crisis on Supplier Selection Criteria of the Oil and Gas Industry Equipment Market

It is a difficult task to find those vendors who not only have the adequate quality and quantity of the needed raw materials but who also have an attitude of efficiency and display commitment to customer service (Sonmat, 2006). Further, organizations also strive to locate and select vendors who can be depended upon for long term relationship.

The number of factors or attributes desired from the vendor is vast, and different organizations and different industries place different importance on the attributes (Sonmat, 2006). Some of the vendor attributes may gain importance owing to the nature of the industry, for example, in the case of consumer perishables suppliers, like fresh vegetables or fruits, the buying firm would...
20 Pages(5000 words)Literature review

The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald

His plan seems to be succeeding as he visits with her several times and she seems to be returning some of his affections, but when she’s forced to make a choice between Tom and Gatsby, Daisy chooses Tom for his old money and connections. The reader understands all this from the beginning thanks to the observations of the narrator, Nick. Following an accident when Daisy kills Tom’s girlfriend while driving Gatsby’s car, Gatsby proves his inability to handle the emergency while Tom takes charge and whisks Daisy away to a safe place. Meanwhile, Gatsby’s inability to see the truth contributes to his own tragic death at the hands of the dead woman’s grief-stricken husband. “He had come a long way to...
10 Pages(2500 words)Book Report/Review

Inversion in The Importance of Being Earnest

...Inversion in The Importance of Being Earnest Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest is heavily themed with hypocrisy. One of the most frequently occurring motifs in the underlying theme of hypocrisy is inversion. Wilde’s use of inversion is so profound that a close reading of the play’s title can retrospectively be inverted to actually mean the importance of NOT being earnest. Wilde takes a number of guarded, serious and reveled Victorian values and inverts them through satire and comedy. By inverting Victorian values in comic fashion, Wilde exposes the hypocrisy of those values through witty and often clipped dialogue. Wilde’s Algernon makes an emphatic observation about the solemnity of Victorian marriages and the hypocrisy...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Importance of ISO 9000 for Plym Yachts

As we know that today’s business world is rapidly changing, it has become extremely important and crucial for any company or business to implement ISO 9000 in the business.

While talking about ISO 9000, let’s now describe its importance for the company, Plym Yachts. As we have encountered a big problem of losing our precious and potential customers in the recent times because of not paying enough attention and interest towards the implementation of ISO 9000 in the company, we need to know its importance and significance to the company. So describing the importance of ISO 9000, it is a common fact that when a company or any specific business will not have any proper implementation of any quality management sy...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Analysis of Articles about Climate Change

Can we imagine an Earth where there are no green mountains, no deep blue seas, and no living creatures? No. But a disaster of such magnitude and dimension is looming over Earth. Humans have identified this threat, defined it and given it a name, global warming. 

It was in the 1990s that the world began to hear serious warnings on global warming and climate change. The summary for policymakers prepared as part of the first assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was the first-ever in-depth study on this topic (Houghton, Jenkins and Ephirams, 1990). This report explored climate change and stumbled upon revolutionary revelations. This study announced in very clear terms that there is a natur...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Critically assess the importance of solar variability, volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations as climate forcing f for FREE!

Contact Us