The purpose of this paper is to investigate the geology of Brazil in order to gain an appreciation of the land, history and dynamics of the home country. Brazil is located within the South American Platform with its basement consisting of a highly complex geologic evolution beginning from the Archaean period…
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The Crystalline shields and the sedimentary basins of Brazil have clearly demarcated above (Fig.1). The shield of Guyana extends to the north of the basin of Amazonas; “the shield of the Brazil-central or Guapore extends to the interior of Brazil and south of that basin, while the Atlantic shield is exposed in the oriental portion reaching the Atlantic border” (Machado, 2011). These shields are exposed in over half the area of Brazil. On that platform in Brazil were developed three extensive basins with character: Amazonas, Paraiba and Parana, which developed by filling spatially with sedimentary and volcanic coverings during stable conditions of ortho-platform originating from Ordovician-Silurian. Additionally, several other smaller basins including coastal basins and other sedimentary areas, occur exposed on the platform. The Carajas region in the Amazon belt of Brazil reveals a number of important features regarding the reactivation of Archaean basement terrains. A general increase in temperature is linked to deformation through time that is consistent with the progressive exhumation of the crust. Similar embrittlement sequences are recognized in many other long-lived basement shear zones. Secondly, the regional basement fabrics are steeply dipping and trending east to west. Those deformations that followed are wrench-dominated events probably because the foliation orientation favours strike-slip, as opposed to dip-slip reactivation. Thirdly, the location of the younger Cover Assemblage rocks is structurally controlled by strike-slip fault zones.
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