Gender and Sexual Studies. The way different genders are educated and learn differently. Since the middle of the twentieth century there has been an increasing awareness of the different experiences that men and women have in life, and the way that society defines and upholds what it means to be a man or a woman…
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In modern western societies gender is something which is flexible and is worked at by individuals in a social context: “an accomplishment, an achieved property of situated conduct… Rather than as a property of individuals we perceive gender as an emergent feature of social situations.” (West and Zimmerman, 1987, p. 126) One very important social institution for the “doing” of gender in this way is the education system. This paper examines the way that different genders are educated differently and explores why they learn differently and achieve different outcomes. In classical and medieval times formal education was reserved mainly for men, and women were restricted to domestic training and preparation for marriage. Theories why this was the case range from kind of biological determinism based on hunter-gatherer job distribution to political power struggles in which the patriarchs used superior physical strength to apportion most of the privileges to themselves. The stereotyping of girls as passive and nurturing and boys as active and combative comes from this kind of reasoning. In families and in nursery schools boys certainly display a general tendency to play with mechanical toys, while girls tend to choose dolls and clothes, largely because these choices are reinforced by parents and teachers, and opposite choices are often frowned upon. This is the power of socialization at work which sets up unspoken gender “norms” for boys and girls. With the arrival of feminism in the twentieth century many educators actively began to work against this stereotyping and it became clear that when equal opportunity and support is given for free choices, there is a far less clear distinction between boys’ and girls’ behavior. (Butler, 1999) Some studies point out that brain differences between males and females have been observed, (Gurian and Stevens, 2011, 43) and that these mimic the classic spatial awareness ability of boys and communicative prowess of girls. It is not entirely clear, however, whether these differences are innate, or whether they are learned during early childhood. Certainly the socialization of children is very important in the way that they perceive gender, both in terms of themselves, and in terms of the range of choices available to them in their lives. Boys and girls learn different ways of talking, and of behaving, and this predisposes them to particular subjects later in life. (Hall and Bucholtz, 1995, 5-12) After a period of intensive support for women in education, the situation of exclusion has been removed, and in fact the worry for modern society is now the under-representation of boys and men in education. It is estimated that in 2007 “the gender gap will reach 2-3 million, with 9.2 million women enrolled in U.S. colleges compared with 6.9 million men.” (Lopez, 2003, p. 2) The ratio in some minority ethnic groups is likely to show an even greater imbalance than this. It may be that such trends are due to factors in contemporary society, such as the effect of feminism on the education world, and the way that teaching and assessment methods have changed to favour homework and continuous assessment, for example, instead of final unseen examination. The underperformance of boys may also be due to a crisis in the way that masculinity is perceived: men are expected to relinquish their superior position in
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In seeking to answer this particular question, it is the view of this author that Martin Luther King Junior represents one of the most positive and transformative individuals to have lived within the past several decades. Whereas a litany of different military figures could have been chosen to have provided definitive changes to the world as we know it, whereas philosophers and writers have been able to impact upon the way in which individuals view certain issues, whereas songwriters and popular culture icons have been able to integrate with the emotions and affections of entire generations, it is the belief of this author that the change which was revoked by Martin Luther King is of much gr
He said that was a wise thing to do since one should not make a decision without thinking about it at first. Mr. Adams then asked what I really wanted to do with my life and what I liked to do with my free time. I told him that I loved soccer and reading, however, above all my past times, I loved listening to music most.
A strategy therefore ensures that a company is able to effectively manage its daily business activities by providing the best services and offering the highest quality of product so as to ensure customer retaining. An operations strategy must include the processes that are performed on a daily basis so as to serve customers, and the overall business milestones that the company must overcome and attain so as to be able to be successful (Slack, & Lewis, 2008, p.
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In the most general sense, the symbol is a notion that allows material objects and events to reflect in a particular context certain ideas that are different from their immediate meaning. The symbol is a sign – however, this notion is broader since its essence is wider than simply pointing at something different from itself.
A detailed study will attempt to discover salient adaptations of this special dialect, and which linguistic system: morphological, phonological, lexical, or syntactical, carries the highest proportion of detectable loan
said aims, certain research questions have been framed as - Are males in the British Bangladeshi population in school ‘X’ in Bethnal Green underperforming educationally at GCSE level compared to their female peers? And, if such underperformance in evident, what are the
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