Introduction The article, ‘Traits Across Cultures: A Neo-Allportian Perspective’ by Brad Piekkola was published in 2011 in Journal of theoretical and Philosophical Psychology. It has been significant in its efforts to define and describe the meaning of personality of a person…
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But the author contradicts the modules of theory and asserts that external aspects like culture and social environment are important elements that have considerable impact on human behavior. The author has adopted subjective epistemology to identify different factors and used Gordon Allport’s theory to understand the wider meaning of personality and personality trait. Hypothesis The key hypothesis of the study is that personality traits as shown by five factor theory are actually traits of temperament of personality which can be broadly construed as part of biological imperatives of personality and not of personality as a whole. The author believes that biological basis of human behavior is important but not exclusive part of personality. Thus, looking from the wider integrated approach, personality is flexible and adapts to the changing environment within which person exists. Research design and methodology adopted The comparative history of research issues greatly facilitate in understanding the various paradigms of the subject matter and help to evaluate the same with new perspectives. Piekkola has used qualitative research comprising of extensive literature review. The qualitative analysis of the information or data is used for generating theories that reflect the realities of life. Indeed, the author’s intrinsic belief that human behavior is intrinsically linked to personality which also reflects social changes and quality of life. It addresses the impact of external factors on personality and personality traits and therefore requisite epistemology is interpretive in nature. This is highly relevant as the broad spectrum of knowledge gained through this methodology has hugely facilitated in realizing the aims and objectives of the study. Data analysis and interpretation The target population is widely spread as it treats the personality of a person as a whole rather than using specifics of individual behavior. Indeed, one of the most relevant features of the study is that it has used subjectivism based research and expertly used the knowledge base through past studies. The author has been able to delve deeper into the wider implications of the meaning of personality within the pre-defined parameters of given socio-cultural paradigms. The qualitative research methodology had focused on literature reviews. Thus, sampling primarily comprised of reading works of wide ranging authors on the topic concerned who had compared different approaches to the same issue but with different perspectives. He has used more than 153 works from 1989 to 2010 of various authors to evaluate and identify the indicators of personality traits and factors that influence human behavior under different circumstances. The wide scope of literature review becomes highly relevant part of Piekkola’s study. It not only gives credence to an exhaustive study but also takes into consideration the changing landscape of transforming socio-historical aspect of changing human values and behavior. Piekkola has asserted that biological concepts of personality traits are not sufficient to define the personality primarily because experience and environment, both significantly influence the personality traits. They are vital to the study because they provide a person with individuality and unique differentiation in
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