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(Analysis and design of Steel lattice telecommunication tower - Literature review Example

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Literature Review Steel lattice telecommunication towers are coming out of style due to a variety of factors, replaced by free standing concrete towers. “Whereas until the mid-1950’s, telecommunication towers were normally built as stayed steel lattice towers, currently almost all television towers and communication towers are designed as free standing concrete towers” (NISEE, 1997)…
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Literature review (Analysis and design of Steel lattice telecommunication tower
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Download file to see previous pages “In the very beginning, more than 100 years ago, the first steel lattice towers for telecommunications were produced of flat-sided profiles like the angular profiles since it was easy to produce and... assemble” (Packer and Willibald, 2006, 45). Since the phone was invented in the 1870s, with the twang on June 2, 1875 and the famous “Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you” issued on March 10, 1876, this means that steel lattice towers have been used almost since the start of modern telecommunications, only thirty years or so after the invention of the phone (Bellis, 2011). The early steel lattice telecommunications towers were things of pure efficiency, designed purely for cost-saving and speed (Smith, 2007, 75). Transmission lines make any cost-saving useful because the line requires numerous standardized elements, so the steel lattice towers were often used as a line to run cable (Smith, 2007, 75). However, even in the earliest days of steel lattice construction, extensive testing was used, with testing stations pushing the towers to the point of destruction (Smith, 2007, 75). This helped lead to design curves on angle sections. Early towers were far from precarious, but were vulnerable to wind stress. Modern free-standing steel lattice towers have tended to adopt a tubular profile design because of wind stress and material costs, particularly in Northern Europe (Packer and Willibald, 2006, 45). They tend to “vary in face width from top to bottom” and use different bracing patterns (Smith, 2007, 75). Heights have varied from a mere 10 meters to 200 meters. Steel lattice towers are one of the more common low-lying telecommunication towers design, eclipsing guyed masts until around 150 meters (Smith, 2007, 75). This is because, below 150 meters, the cost “increases more rapidly with height” since there is a large ratio of height to base width which guyed towers do not need (Smith, 2007, 75). Modern steel free-standing lattice towers have fallen out of favor in developed countries because of environmental impacts (Urbano, 2001). “Currently available design solutions with acceptable appearance are not employed in the developing countries, mainly for cost reasons. In the developing countries the use of the traditional lattice transmission towers will continue employing steel angles” (Urbano, 2001, 36). This is not to say they are not in use, but that other alternatives, particularly concrete, have pushed them out of the way. Currently, the tallest free-standing steel lattice construction in the world is the Kiev TV Tower, which was built in 1974 while the Iron Curtain was in full force (Construction Week, 2010). “The tower weighs 2,700 tons and is unique in the fact that no mechanical fasteners were used in its construction”; every single piece is welded together (Construction Week, 2010). The tower rests on a 100 meter four-legged base, after which is the microwave transmission equipment; at 200 meters, TV and FM transmitting equipment begins. Ironically, the Kiev TV Tower could have been even larger, but it was decided not to be placed in Moscow, and the Moscow tower uses prestressed concrete, though it remains free-standing (Construction Week, 2010). The Kiev tower would have been 30% larger had it been built in Moscow. Another classic of steel lattice design is the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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