The process of `giving voice' is what want to focus on here. It is one that is very relevant to an international gathering in which different `mother tongues'-and I should add `father tongues'-will be used to communicate about the theme of the conference…
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For language, as well as being a vehicle for communication, is also power. The author and psychoanalyst Eva Hoffman, who left her native Poland to complete her education in Canada and the USA, and who now practices as a psychoanalyst in London, writes about the relationship between language and identity in her autobiography Lost in Translation: Life in a New Language:
I was also delighted to be asked to speak at a conference marking the 60th anniversary of the host organization, Relate. My association with Relate goes back even further than that with the Commission, and I am a firm admirer of the contribution it makes nationally to trying to improve communication between women and men through its work with troubled marriages. Talk therapy does offer the chance of finding one's voice, discovering a new language in which difficult matters can be talked about, and repossessing one's identity. Relate may not have thought of itself as a language school, but it is in the business of offering interpretive services. In that, it shares an enterprise with the work of my own organization, the Tavistock Marital Studies Institute, which also celebrated an important occasion in 1998-its 50th anniversary. Both organizations are concerned with whether and how women and men talk to each other.
Not far from where I live in Hertfordshire is the village of Ayot St Lawrence. One of this little village's claims to fame is that the playwright George Bernard Shaw used to live there. His best-known play is probably Pygmalion, a quintessentially English drama about the divisions of class and gender, and one made popular by the musical My Fair Lady. The plot revolves around a bet, made by a dialectician, Professor Henry Higgins, that he can train a market girl, Eliza Dolittle, to speak and act in ways that would allow her to be passed off as aristocracy. In trying to eliminate the linguistic indicators of class, Higgins becomes increasingly frustrated by the differences of gender that he encounters. One plaintive, immortalized line from the musical, pleads `Why can't a woman be more like a man?'. The boot today is on the other foot. When it comes to communication, the exasperated cry is now `Why can't a man be more like a woman?'. You hear it in the consulting rooms of counsellors and therapists, in research reports on family life, and in media discussions on gender relations. The questions now are `why do men stonewall?', `why can't they talk about their feelings?', `why are they so orientated towards activities?' In an age where companionability is the primary expectation of marriage and partnership, men tend to get the blame for not delivering. Their 'failure' to communicate is taken as a key reason why marriages break down. They are no longer needed to bring home the bacon, nor even to provide the socially accepted framework of marriage for conceiving and raising children, and women are asking themselves what they need men for. Men, on the other hand, are facing a decline in their market, social and biological value. As if to underline the point, sperm levels are falling in our increasingly oestrogen-ridden environment, and even male delivery systems have proved inferior (at least, in terms of efficiency) to those carried out in the hospital laboratory. The recent explosion of interest in the male potency drug, Viagra, tells its own story. Is this story just of `Boy's
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With regard to the people around us, the ease and quickness with which we can ascribe labels (as female, male, gay, straight, rich, poor, etc.) to people represents a greater length of time and a greater amount of effort that we can spend attending to other things requiring attention.
One of the most prominent areas of investigation in terms of feminist and psychological theory are gender roles. There are a variety of ramifications gender roles hold for individuals including occupational roles, sexual relations, and even the very construction of personality.
The second story about the secret life of Mr. Mitty can be well understood if it is studied in comparison with Rip Van Winkle who escapes his nagging wife by sleeping and dreaming on the mountains for twenty years after which he finds himself back into a world unfamiliar.
Sometimes some people leave their previous lifestyles in order to accommodate the new life they have acquired. Psychologists believe that emotions, behavior change, or reactions to issues affecting one's environment depend on the cognitive development and environmental factors.
Jane Eyre is the life-long story of a woman from the Victorian Era who is assaulted throughout her life for her disapproving instinct towards the inferior role of woman in the society. As a child, Jane Eyre is assaulted by John Reed. As a teenager, she is assaulted by Mr. Brocklehurst and as an adult, she encounters Mr. Rochester who uses Bertha for becoming wealthy and after acquiring that abandons her because of her madness.
This is evident in the current advertising roles that represent men and women as celebrities to attract more viewers and therefore, generate sales and profits. The ads also promote a new sense of comprehending gender roles in a society that is increasingly becoming addicted to hype and fame and thus discarding the conventional culture of respectability that valued women.
Written by Tristan Bernard and the short story, “The necklace,” written by Guy de Maupassant is well evident with the theme of gender roles and marriage. There are notable differences in the two genres, which can easily be observed but there are similarities that can also be easily noted.
Gender perceptions and gender roles have often been a central theme of literature in nearly every era. Authors have been presenting their personal opinions about gender roles through the characters of their literary texts. The characters, often times, were a reflection of their own personalities or life experiences. Critics and analysts have been presenting their opinions about literary texts, enabling common readers to become familiar with the themes behind the texts.
Socialization is a broad term and encompasses all the efforts undertaken by the members of a society to ensure that its inhabitants occupy gender appropriate roles from a very early age. A gender role is defined as the cultural expectations regarding what is perceived as gender appropriate behavior.
Nearly all great cities of today are marked with the footprints of European society, where, the males dominate in almost every way possible. Due to this androcentric tendency of the human society, there are clear actions that are expected to come out from a man which is distinct from the expected reaction of the woman.
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