I have taken up advanced level courses in financial economics at IIT Bombay and management of technology at the University of Cambridge. However, I strongly felt the need to have a deeper understanding of mathematics as well to understand the analytical processes decision making. I took up advanced levels of math courses.
The cy-pres doctrine is this regard was very narrow until the Charities Act 1960 and was available only where it was impossible or impractical to carry out the purposes of the trust. Thus, trusts for the distribution of loaves of bread to the poor or stocking for poor maidservants continued until modern times.
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A reduction in the general availability of loans is known as a “credit crunch.” Its occurrence is related to the onset of economic recession when the prices of previously valuable assets start to collapse. Banks perceive a greater risk and tighten the conditions required for obtaining a loan, thus dropping the overall number of approved loaners.
The implementation of international accounting standards (IAS’s) has been an issue of much debate since the 1960’s, but has come to the fore in recent years, after the 2002 decision of the EU to make the adoption of IAS’s compulsory for listed companies from the 1st of January 2005, when compiling consolidated financial statements.
Given the spurt of accounting scandals in the past and the current financial crisis witnessed in the US, the UK, the Europe and the rest of world, the Financial Accounting Standards Board has modified the desired accounting standard under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) from “costing” of an item to “fair valuation” of the item vide statement number 159.
Defining the problem is not as simple as it looks, more so since the case details are mum on crucial information like inflation rates, interest rates, the balance of trade, our buying power and demographic profile, employment and so on. In the absence of such data, we have to resort to assumptions and predict the worst that can happen.
Many companies have adopted corporate governance. It has a Combined Code that recommends things that should be done by those companies or organization that chooses to use it. However, some companies do not comply with this Combined Code and they go further to explain why they don’t comply.
These items indicate the firm's financial position. (McClure, 2008).If a company extends credit to its customers, and they are not able to pay off their invoices on time, working capital of the company gets trapped; meaning that it is part of accounts receivable but cannot be used for immediate purposes.
CIMA London defines management accounting as “the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information used by management to plan, evaluate and control within an entity and to assure appropriate use of and accountability for its resources”.
There are a number of factors to take into account at first with regard to the reasons companies must invest abroad, and several broad aspects can be associated with the general degree of risk a specific host country has for a multinational company (MNC) planning to or attempting to invest abroad. Such aspects include the country’s recent history, the form of external and internal demands, etc.
The paper starts by describing the meaning of corporation and its nature and this will be followed by describing the company business, products and operations. The paper will also outline how the company will be funded as well as tracing the company development from sole proprietorship to a major corporation.
The main problem of the paper is that many countries are coming now to one common currency. 16 states of EU have Euro as their official currency. All these states collectively form the ‘Eurozone’. Some other countries are also focusing on converting their official currencies to Euro. One state, which is of major concern today, is the Czech Republic.
The elasticity of demand measures the extent of the inverse relationship between the price and the quantity demanded of the commodity. According to Alfred Marshall, “the elasticity of demand in a market is great or small according to as the amount demanded increases much or little for a given rise in price”.
Generally, unsold goods are valued a cost price or market price whichever is lower by businesses concerns, However, in some cases like precious metals, mineral oils, the unsold goods may be valued at market price. As per the convention of consistency, the same accounting methods should be adopted every year in preparing financial statements.
In the UK, ethical banks provide a range of banking services that include current accounts, credit cards, personal loans, mortgages, deposit, and business account as well as insurance services such as a car, home, life, and health insurance. The major banks that set their firms apart as ethical banks are Triodos, Co-operative Bank, Reliance Bank.
The world has been recovering from a very serious financial problem. The auditors are being blamed for not being able to inform about the same earlier. The main question which arises is: would it have helped if they had given these companies, which are now bankrupt, an adverse going-concern opinion? Wouldn’t the market have fulfilled this prophecy?
The research paper by Gerald J Lobo and Jian Zhou closely studies the enhanced conservatism in financial reporting, post the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Through various surveys and reports, it has been found that the 2002 act and the resultant SEC certification requirements have essentially affected management’s discretionary reporting of financial reports.
Provide support for your answer. 2. Based on your research, describe the organization, the accounting ethical breach and the impact to the organization related to ethical breach. 3. Determine how the organizational ethical issue was detected and how management failed to create an ethical environment.
Financial planning, the acquisition of funds to finance planned activities by the Financial Planner, is the practice of determining present and future financial goals. In Australia, it has risen dramatically over the last decade. A Financial Planner is always set and has capabilities to help others in dealing with various financial issues.
Meanwhile, a pair of ski binding will cost $10.5. Total production cost will be lower at $895,000 per 10,000 pairs. Thus, it is better to outsource the ski bindings than to produce them in-house. 2. Looking at the cost structure of Minnetonka Corporation, the difference between producing in-house and outsourcing the binding is $5,000.
Reg Vardy’s Board and management should undertake all measures to ensure that shareholders’ value is maximized. They should cautiously consider if the proposed acquisition terms would truly bode well for its current stakeholders and use sound judgment to determine the effects on the overall well being of the company.
Although detailed provisions are there in the Act, the purpose of this letter is to provide a basic understanding of the provisions affecting the company. This letter shows the calculations of the income of the company for the purposes of corporation tax and also the various deductions available under the Act.
But this is not to say that financial modeling cannot be performed manually.There are various financial models that a company can use in evaluating its investment projects. The only challenge for the company is to identify the model that will provide the most accurate information that can help the company make the right decision.
The word ‘Tax Practitioner’ indicates a person who practices on the matter of tax. Actually, they are the advisers who perform their activities on the basis of giving advice to the general people consistent with tax legislation in order to promote compliance In 2002, it is composed by the announcement of The Minister of Finance.
The technique of cost controlling forms an important weapon in the fight to manage project costs and to ensure those clients receive value for money. It is now cleared that costs are not confirmed to initial construction, but also relate to operational aspects such as maintenance, cleaning, energy usage and functional occupancy.
The company also prepare budgets at the beginning of each year; the budgets will include sales budget, direct material usage budgets, direct labor budget and also the purchase of materials budget. These budgets will enable the company to plan, coordinating and communication of its goals and objectives.
The company operates on a higher sales turnover and low margin policy. At the end of the year 20X6 the company had a market share of about 17.5 percent and the company has estimated it to grow at the rate of 5 percent per annum during the next 5 years.
Even though the monetary payments, as well as the non-monetary aspects of the compensation package, are a very important component for employees to stay on the job, the current global scenario has altered this situation. Employees now would want to stay put in the job that they are currently working in, even if wages are low.
This paper has investigated no evidence that anything has altered around 1999. Episode nearby the euro cash changeover at the end of 2001 and in the opening of 2003 retail worth adjustment frequencies up and down and increased substantially. While the scale of the price adjustment also both up and down was less significant than otherwise.
Businesses may have put their own auditing committee in place to control their internal affairs. Outside directors are drafted into the committee to ensure that evaluations are done objectively. One function of the committee is to engage the company's independent auditors and review their work. This gives the public confidence in their work.
These are formulated to serve as a guideline to all members of an organization. It helps to sustain the smooth flow of business activities as well as a lasting good relationship among the employees, the management, the investors, and the government. Much attention is given to those who are handling the monetary transactions in an organization.
Real estate business is a huge profit making business. It is one of the booming businesses that have given fruitful results to those who invested to gain profits. A real estate can give good results if the infrastructure of concerned city, town or village is good. Basic facilities like water, electricity, food, and shelter should be sufficient.
According to Wikipedia, “Corporation tax is a tax levied in the United Kingdom on the profits made by companies and associations that are resident for tax purposes, and on the profits of permanent establishments of non-UK resident companies and associations that trade in the UK” (2007). The tax went into effect on April 1, 1965.
By using clustering, we can assign one salesman to concentrate on one cluster of prospects because these customers have the same hobbies, needs and the like. In hierarchical cluster analysis, the entire population under statistical study the cases are grouped based on their similarities. Distance between each member of the population is also used as a basis in cluster analysis.
To support such changes, companies have altered their management accounting practices to adapt to the ever changing environment. There is sufficient research done by the authors discussed in this work, to support such a statement.
AT&T is recognized as the leading worldwide provider of IP-based communication services and equipments to businesses and the leading U.S. provider of wire and wireless, high speed Internet access, local and long distance voice, and directory publishing and advertising services
It is in this line that our business organization is contemplating the replacement of the current sub-assembly line with an automated one. The new technology is expected to boost the firm’s production capacity as well as eliminate inefficiencies such as rework/scrap and wastage. Currently, the production department utilizes a manual assembly line which eight fitters who are paid £18,500.
The author of the paper states that the infrastructure development function appearing in the value chain at the corporate level does not find a place in the plant level value chain, as it would be ideal to centralize the infrastructure development for both Yorkshire and Essonnes plants.
If information is to represent faithfully the transactions and other events that it purports to represent, it is necessary that they are accounted for and presented in accordance with their substance and economic reality and not merely their legal form.
The author claims that the adaptability of the new technologies and the implications of the new market environments were unanswered. New cultures and new challenges opened in the diversified environment which were mostly unaddressed due to lack of the leverage of the leadership concepts at the implementation stages.
The first model focuses on inconsistencies between a country's external commitments, such as a fixed or pegged exchange rate, and its internal economic fundamentals. For example, a government that is running a fiscal deficit might pressure its central bank to help finance the budget by printing money.
The US GAAP, (Generally accepted accounting principles) is another framework which is followed in many countries. This was created before IFRS. Though the purpose of creating these two frameworks is same but there are many differences in the policies and rules in both of the framework.
The author of the paper went on to discuss the role of corporate managers in terms of the agent of the stakeholders of the business and the connection between the actions of managers which are inadvertently directed at securing the benefits of either the managers themselves or the stakeholders.
The Transactional demand is basically to hold money in a noninterest-bearing form with the intention to make day to day transactions. While focusing specifically on the transactions demand of money, this paper is aimed at examining the relationship between the interest rate and money demand in the context of a general assumption.
It shows the effectiveness and performance of the company's management to obtain more returns on the shareholders' investment.It is of importance to the company's management as well as investors and shareholders being a performance indicator for the company.
In addition, Section 108 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 instructs the Securities and Exchange Commission to conduct a study on the adoption of a principles-based accounting system. The study is to have four elements:Two themes emerge from these discussions.
An external auditor is a person who is hired by the company to give an auditor’s opinion as to the correctness or fairness of the financial statements. When the auditor sees that if the representations in the financial statements are in violation of International Accounting Standards, then the auditors recommend the adjustments that must be made to correct.
As the world enters into a New World order where we see the phenomenon of the establishment of a global village that thrives into the creation of a global market and posits the probability of a global citizen. Contemporary human beings find themselves grappling with the movement known only in our times – globalization wherein, the world has shrunk not physically nor geographically.