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Secondly, accounting follows a framework popularly known as “The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting”. In addition, the overall accounting structure and basic formation of reporting, assists in conceptualizing accounting better. The knowledge of accounting principles, procedures, and rules is valuable to business and its eventual success in any given financial period. Financial records are made numerically and any accounting analysis on them should be numerical (Anthony, 1993). The “International Public Sectors Accounting Standards Board” sets standards and Recommended Practice Guidelines in accounting. They are used by government agencies in the national, regional, and local governments. According to this board, the Conceptual Framework for Financial Accounting is mainly used for preparation and presentation of general purpose financial reports (Needles & Powers, 2012). The Conceptual Framework also extends its authority to public sectors social security funds, trusts, statutory authorities, as well as, international governmental organizations. However, the general purpose financial reporting has the main objective of providing financial information about a business that comes in handy when looking for current investors; reports to creditors when requesting for loans; and decision making regarding purchases, sales, equity holding and debts in line with the profits or returns. There are two types of financial reports. They include general Purpose Financial Reports and Special purpose Financial Reports. General Purpose Financial reporting refers to a central component of enhancement and support, of the financial reports by public sector entities. The intentions of these reports is to satisfy the information requirements, for users who may be in a position that lacks enabling factors for preparation of financial reports that are tailor-made, to meet their information needs. They also contain a number of reports each of which gives a response that is within the scope of financial reporting, with respect to the objectives of financial reporting. However, the scope of financial reporting also includes guidelines on how other various events and activities can be reported in the financial report. On the other hand, Special Purpose Financial Reports (SPFRs) are financial reports whose sole purpose is to respond to specifications for users that bear authority, to make such requirements and for a specific purpose (Piper, 2013). There are characteristics that guide the qualitative nature of important financial information. These characteristics include comparability, timeliness, verifiability and comprehensibility. However, the basic qualitative characteristics include relevance and faithful representation. For financial information to display relevance, it should influence the decision made by the user (Balakrishnan & sprinkle, 2008). Failure to consider the importance of the relevance of the information will create a niche, even after the decision is made. However, the financial information must display a predictive value and a confirmatory value to attain relevance. Moreover, the confirmatory value should either confirm or differ with the evaluations that were previously made. On the other hand, financial information that exhibits a predictive value must also exhibit a confirmatory value because these two values are interrelated. For instance, a company’s financial report can be used to project future earnings for the company (Gupta, 2009). However, it should also be verified that the method of prediction
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The researcher states that creative accounting is an appalling challenge to the profession of accounting. It is a problem which is not centred to certain specific countries but all the nations of the world. The managers of the companies are motivated to the use of creative accounting practices in financial reporting of the company in many ways as discussed earlier.
The conceptual framework includes the principles, regulations and rules that are to be followed by accounting officials while preparing and presenting financial statements. The international accounting standards board (IASB) uses the conceptual framework as a statistical tool in order to develop and revise the international financial reporting standards (IFRS).
In recent years there has been a major increase in the international importance of this concept. This has come about with its adoption by the European Community in the Fourth Directive on company law and its implementation in all Community countries. However, this concept has never been defined in UK legislation, and a variety of meanings can be attributed to it.
The manipulations have taken place in different forms. While analysing the creative accounting in the context of Greek, Baralexis (2004) found out that the manipulation of accounting has been well documented in accounting literatures and there are examples of manipulation in account books dating back to 1920s.
The international accounting community has been struggling to achieve the goal of harmonizing the accounting standards around the world and the period of last five years particularly depicts a picture of their continued efforts in convincing the world towards the unification of accounting standards and principles.
GB Group (2007) states that "[d]ebt recovery is becoming a big business as personal debt in the UK now stands at over 1.3 trillion" (GB Group, 2007). Now, it is the common practice that people likely to overlook or escape the provisions of debt payment for various reasons.
Four years after his divorce, Mr Bogusz bought unregistered land in 2 Eldon Street in Reading. His daughter, Ms. Vallee was married to a French national, after which she moved to China and finally to France. Occasionally, she visits her father Mr