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Autism - Essay Example

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With the growing resources unearthed about various human illnesses and disorders, more and more research has been conducted to find more about developmental disorders that besiege children today. One developmental disorder that has captured the interest and attention of parents,…
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Download file to see previous pages... This estimate have risen in recent years due to more awareness about Autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) along with the developmental disorders that fall under its umbrella are disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication skills. The Autism Spectrum Disorders include: Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Autism Disorder, Child Disintegrative Disorder and Rett Syndrome.
In recent years, diagnoses of Autism have increased both in breadth and in depth. The increase in the prevalence of this developmental disorder to 1 in 88 children has become so alarming that many parents and practitioners have been more diligent in knowing more about it. Zalla et al. (2006) has encapsulated the definition of Autism as follows: It is
“a complex developmental disorder characterised by severe difficulties in communication, social interactions, and executive functions. Social and communication disturbances are generally explained in terms of a defective neurocognitive mechanism responsible for the attribution of thoughts and feelings to oneself and to others” (p. 527).
The many symptoms presented by individuals with Autism have been inconsistent in pointing to just one disorder that is why it had to be spread out to various disorders within the Autism spectrum. Although there are overlaps of symptoms, there are also categorical clusters that belong to one disorder that can be differentiated from another disorder.
Under the umbrella of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) exists the highest functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) subtype called Asperger’s Syndrome (Kurita, Koyama & Osada, 2005). This is characterized by several deficits in age-appropriate social interactions and restricted, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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The uniqueness of autism overshadows all other developmental orders. Without a concrete evidence, the diagnosis of and prognosis for autism is full with doubt. This vagueness makes it very hard for parents to accept the child’s condition. Second, parents of children with autism are frequently deprived of various essential rewards for parenthood because the disorder is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, such as developing attachments and showing affection.
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In the clinical practice, the word autism spectrum disorder abbreviated as ASD and it is always used jointly to refer to autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Communication uniqueness that is the diagnostic of autism is recapitulated, with deliberation of the overlap amid social and communication problem, predominantly for children with autism performance at the prelinguistic stage.
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According to the paper individuals get extremely confused when they think about autism, as they perceive it to be a childhood disorder. An invasive disorder influences social and communication skills and to some extent affects motor and language skills. A wide-ranging diagnosis can include children with mental retardation and high IQ and people with extreme traits in their personality.
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The real cause of the disorder has not yet been discovered. However, psychologists associate it to atypical chemistry and biological processes in the brain (Corsello, 2005). Autistic children encounter difficulties when performing activities such as verbal and nonverbal communication, play, and social interactions (Cohen, 2002).
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The disorder has a strong genetic connection and individuals afflicted with the severe form experiencing facial malformation ("Micrornas provide new," 2011). There are a number of pervasive characteristics of
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