Down Syndrome - Research Paper Example

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Chromosomes are the basic unit of cells which contain the organized form of DNA in a coiled form. These chromosomes undergo different type of abnormalities during the genesis of human beings. Chromosomes are units which are transferred from parent to offspring through different processes…
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Down Syndrome
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Download file to see previous pages In this assignment the particular emphasis would be on translocation as it occurs in Downs’ Syndrome. Downs’ Syndrome is also known as trisomy 21 in which the process of translocation occurs on the chromosome number 21. This essay would further revolve around Downs’ Syndrome putting forward each and every aspect that is important in understanding the syndrome. Translocation In order to understand the basics of Down syndrome one has to know enough about the structural abnormality of translocation. Translocation is a process in which the whole segment of a chromosome is exchanged by another chromosome. In other words a part of chromosome is exchanged with another part of another chromosome. There are two types of translocations known as reciprocal translocations and Robertosonian translocations. Reciprocal translocation takes place when segments are exchanged between nonhomologous pairs of chromosomes. Reciprocal translocation usually does not cause any disease or symptom but it may cause leukemia. However in some cases this type of translocation leads to abnormal fertilization and hence abnormal birth. Robertosonian translocations are the ones which are more lethal and occur between two acrocentric chromosomes. The acrocentric chromosomes break near the centromere or the middle part of the chromosome and then join together in such a way that the p arm of the chromosome is lost. This type of translocation occurs in many different types of syndromes and can cause a profound effect on the individual. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome is a cause of Robertosonian translocation and has a profound effect on the individual (Sadler 2009; Ugazio et al 1990) Prevalence of Down syndrome Down syndrome has been seen as a major chromosomal disorder occurring in the United States. The incidence of Down syndrome found in the newborns of United States is 1 in 700. The problem is further aggravating as the genetic problem has yet not been provided with any cure. The problem of Down syndrome has increased over decades and this has been proved by a research carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although women choose to end pregnancies with trisomy 21 it is still seen that the genetic problem is on the increase. It was also found that mothers with an age over 35 were more prone to the problem than the mothers who were below that age. Although the problem has been accounted to the maternal age it is still seen that the birth trends move women to give birth at an older age. The CDC reported an increase from 9 infants per 10,000 births to 11.8 in 10 diverse states of the United States of America. However on the other hand the prevalence of Down syndrome has remained steady in the United Kingdom. Prenatal diagnosis and other methods have also helped mothers to get over the problems that are associated with the syndrome. It was estimated that around 92 percent of the mothers choose abortion when they found that the embryo had trisomy 21 (James 2009). History of Down syndrome Although much has become known about Down syndrome in the recent centuries it is analyzed that the syndrome dates back to the 16th century. The condition could not be recognized in those times until finally in 1866 when Doctor John Langdon Down found about it. He analyzed that many of the children that he was treating shared certain characteristics. Before the syndrome was identified ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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