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THE CULTURE OF BASSERI TRIBES OF IRAN Introduction 3 Basseri of Iran 3 Modes of Subsistence 4 Primary Mode of Subsistence of Basseri 5 8 Impact of modes of subsistence 8 Social Organization 8 Kinship 9 Beliefs and Values 10 Conclusion 11 References 11 Introduction Culture has long been recognized as a powerful tool for human survival but it is also viewed as very fragile…
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The Culture of Basseri Tribes of Iran
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Download file to see previous pages Culture plays a very important role in shaping behavior and attitudes and it is particularly true in spirituality and religion. It is believed that how a makes its living and the modes of subsistence has a strong impact on the culture. This paper aims at studying the culture of Basseri of Iran. Different modes of subsistence and its impact on the culture will be discussed. The Basseri culture and its various aspects of modes of subsistence such as Foragers, Horticulturist, Pastoralist, Emerging Agriculturist, Agrarian states or industrialist will also be discussed. Culture is a very vast field which is depicted in all strata’s of life that is beyond the scope of this paper. This paper will be restricted to only three aspects of culture namely social organization, kinship, beliefs and values. Basseri of Iran Basseri of Iran is the nomadic Muslim tribe that is mainly defined as a political group rather than geographical or ethnic criteria. The Basseri’s though mostly are geographically bounded and they inhabit the province of Fars and have migrated near the town of Shiraz along the mountain. This traditional Basseri culture still exists in Iran although there are new recent data available on them such as the size of the population. Language is a strong component of any culture. The language of Basseri is a dialect of Farsi called the Basseri dialect. Most of the members of the Basseri tribe can only speak Basseri dialect but a few also has command over Turkish and Arabic dialect. Basseri is a very old tribe of the area hence most of the population in southern Iran has ancestral link with Basseri. The east of Iran, Semnan, is inhabited by other nomadic groups such as Yazd-e-Khast, the Bugard-Basseri, and Basseri. However it is believed that all of them have rooted from the traditional Basseri of Fars. The political history of Basseri started in the mid-nineteenth century when Khamesh confederacy was formed. Basseri was part of it. The importance and influence of Basseri tribe grew with passage of time and they became an important political and social unit and hence diminished the power and authority of the confederacy. The habitat of the Basseri is hot and acrid climate of the Persian Gulf. They traditionally inhabit a large ecological range of 18,000 to 21,000 square kilometers. In the southern section there is a desert of about 600-900 kilometers whereas north has high mountains. Mountain precipitation supports reasonable vegetation and even foresting (Khanam, 2005). Modes of Subsistence Different modes of subsistence has evolved as societies and human civilizations evolved. This evolution process has been more or less the same throughout the world. The reason is that these modes of subsistence are derived from the needs and how these needs have been satisfied defines the progression of modes of subsistence. These modes of subsistence have a strong role to play in the definition of social structure, culture, values, beliefs and customs. Based on this concept many theories have been proposed for the progress and social change (Marko, 2008, issue 39). One such theory is proposed by Smith. According to him based on modes of subsistence and its impact on social institution and human activity, societies can be divided into four categories. Smith’s four stages of human civilization are age of hunters, age of Sheppard, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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