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Iatrogenics - Research Paper Example

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Introduction: Medical history continually reveals that unevaluated treatment, regardless of how sincerely administered, is at times useless and wasteful and in some cases even dangerous or harmful. According to Gordis (1987), the lessons we have learnt through history of medicine is that what is reasonable may be false and what is done earnestly may be useless or worse…
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Download file to see previous pages The term Iatrogenic is defined as “induced in patient by physician’s actions, manner and therapy”. This term is specifically used to describe complications or adverse effects medical advice or treatment. Similarly, a pathological variation leading to detrimental consequences in a patient’s health caused by inappropriate practice of health care professionals is regarded as iatrogenic condition. According to WHO, iatrogenic disease may be defined as adverse drug reactions or complications induced by non drug medical interventions. Darchy et al., (1998) defined it, as a disease stimulated by drug prescribed by the doctor after a medical or surgical procedure. Health care associated or hospital acquired infections are a global problem. Iatrogenic frequently leads to severe complications and may require increased use of health care resources and medication, laboratory testing and prolonged duration of hospitalization. Health care personnel targets disease or risk factors for a future ailments by examining, diagnosing and prescribing a procedure for therapy. Most often, the objective of the caregiver is to prevent an ailment however, most of the effective therapies have side effects. Therefore, a dispute remains whether the benefits outweigh the harm. Initially, the focal point of iatrogenic infections is actions or inactions in terms of services of health care professionals such as physicians, pharmacists, therapists, nurses, psychologist etc. Also, the service environment of a hospital may be basis of iatrogenic (White, MA and Kleber, 2008). The estimated deaths caused by iatrogenic illness are 250,000 that make it third largest causes of deaths in U.S. (White, MA and Kleber, 2008). It costs about 6 billion pounds each year in United Kingdom for compensation (one tenth of NHS budget). History: Word iatrogenic is derived from “Iatros” a Greek word meaning brought forth by healer. Iatrogenic history can be traced back to 1800 s, when prior to implementation of aseptic techniques (hand washing and use of sterile gloves) thousands of women died due to puerperal fever; an infectious disease that was transferred between patients following delivery. Likewise, many soldiers that were injured in civil war died due to infections caused by health care personal in hospital tents. Later in 1847, Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis introduced the concept of hand washing prior to patient handling which dramatically dropped the rate of infections caused by physicians. In modern medical times, in the presence of several aseptic techniques the incidence of infection caused by health care professionals is considerably reduced however, still it is regarded as a major issue in medical science (Cina and Perper, 2010). Presentations: Iatrogenic harm caused from errors in diagnosis can be broadly divided into three types: false positive results (diagnosing a disease/disorder in a individual who does not have one), false negatives (mis-diagnosing a disease/disorder in an individual or misjudging the severity of a disease/disorder) and failure to respond and execute to a long term treatment or recovery in a disease. It is a result of procedures or therapeutic treatments or diagnostic examinations. Most of the iatrogenic conditions become clinically evident during the hospital stay however, the infections caused ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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