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Prostate Cancer and African American Men - Research Paper Example

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Prostate Cancer and African American Men The prostate is a male genital organ which is basically a gland. It provides the function of secretions which mainly contain citric acid and acid phospahatase. These secretions of the prostate gland combine with the seminal fluid during ejaculation…
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Prostate Cancer and African American Men
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Pro Cancer and African American Men The pro is a male genital organ which is basically a gland. It provides the function of secretions which mainly contain citric acid and acid phospahatase. These secretions of the prostate gland combine with the seminal fluid during ejaculation. The prostate gland is located below the urinary bladder and above the urogenital diaphragm. The prostate gland is divided into four regions. These are the central zone, transitional zone, peripheral zone and the periurethral zone. The peripheral zone is the zone from where the cancer of the prostate gland arises. Prostate cancer is the first most common cause of cancer in males and it provides for the second cause of cancer mortality in men. In 2003, in the United States prostate cancer accounted for 33 percent of all the cancers which affected males and it was also the cause of 10 percent of all the cancer deaths. According to the National Cancer Institute of the United States, in the year 2010 alone there were 217,730 new cases of prostate cancer and 32,050 patients who died of this form of cancer (Snell 2008; Robbins et al 2005; National Cancer Institute). The carcinoma of the prostate gland has a higher incidence in men above the age of 50 years. This risk factor rises from 20 percent at the age of 50 years to 70 percent between the age of 70 and 80 years. This clearly shows that age plays a very great role in its incidence. This cancer is not only affected by age but race and geographical locations also present with a particular pattern presenting a higher incidence in different races and locations. It has a very low incidence in Asians as compared to the men of United States. Further it is seen that in the United States it affects the black males more than the whites. Prostate cancer is a familial cancer as well. A person with first degree relatives, who are suffering from this condition, has a very high chance of developing this cancer. Genes linked to the cancer are transmitted via germ lines and this susceptibility gene is mapped on the chromosome 1q24-25. Such patients also have a chance of developing the cancer at an early age (Robbins et al 2005). Different treatment options can be used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Antitumor antibiotics as well as hormonal agents are used for the treatment of this cancer. The treatment of choice for advanced prostate cancer is hormonal therapy which is basically luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonistic therapy. Leuprolide and gosrelin are the drugs of choice. The treatment by these agents tends to show good prognosis with relief of pain of the bones that result due to this cancer in almost 80 percent of the patients. Furthermore, there is also reduction in Prostate Specific Antigen. A few patients tend to report either immediate reaction to the drugs whereas another group may report with drug side effects that occur later in the course of therapy. The drugs are given through injections and patients complain of pain at the point where the drug is given. After the drug is administered, the patients present with a sudden rise of the symptoms associated with the cancer. Some patients may also develop loss of ability to perform sex and enlargement of the breast size as well. The drug functions in the most appropriate manner for 2 years but a large number of patients report with recurrence of symptoms. These patients are then moved on to other treatment regimens. Mitoxantrone is an anti tumor antibiotic that is used in the treatment of this cancer. The structure of this drug is closely associated to the anthracycline ring. The drug inhibits the formation of nucleotides that is both DNA and RNA. It is used in the treatment of prostate cancer which does not respond to hormone therapy. The drug follows the hepatic route and is excreted via the gastrointestinal tract. The drug possesses a half life of 75 hours. The drug has many adverse affects and monitoring of the patient should be done for 48 hours to ensure that the patient is not experiencing severe side effects of drugs. These effects include the reduction in the normal functioning of the bone marrow as well as reduction in the leukocytes. The drug may result in cardiovascular system effects. The less severe effects of the drug include loss of hair and gastrointestinal abnormalities which include vomiting and nausea. This treatment modality is utilized for those patients who experience late stages of the disease. It is combined with steroids to improve the quality of life of the patients by leading to relief of the pain in the patients (Katzung 2007; Howland et al 2006). Works Cited Howland, Richard D, Mary J. Mycek, Richard A. Harvey, Pamela C. Champe, and Mary J. Mycek. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. Print. Top of Form Katzung, Bertram G. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. New York: McGraw Hill Medical, 2007. Print. Bottom of Form Top of Form Kumar, Vinay, Abul K. Abbas, Nelson Fausto, Stanley L. Robbins, and Ramzi S. Cotran. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005. Print. National Cancer Institute (U.S. National Institutes of Health). Web 10 May 2011. Bottom of Form Top of Form Snell, Richard S, and Richard S. Snell. Clinical Anatomy by Regions. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. Print. Bottom of Form Read More
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