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Obsessive compulsive disorder - Research Paper Example

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Introduction Obsessive compulsive disorder or OCD is a common, but often unrecognized psychological condition that is associated with distress and also impairment of the functioning of the individual. The severity of the disorder is present in a wide range and many individuals experience moderate to severe symptoms (Greenberg, 2011)…
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Obsessive compulsive disorder
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Obsessive compulsive disorder

Download file to see previous pages... DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria The following four criteria are useful to define obsession in the the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000): •Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images are experienced at some time during the disturbance as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety and distress. Persons with this disorder recognize the pathologic quality of these unwanted thoughts (such as fears of hurting their children) and would not act on them, but the thoughts are very disturbing and difficult to discuss with others. •The thoughts, impulses, or images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems. •The person attempts to suppress or ignore such thoughts, impulses, or images or to neutralize them with some other thought or action. •The person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his or her own mind (not imposed from without, as in thought insertion). The following 2 criteria are used to define compulsions in DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000): •An individual performs repetitive behaviors (eg, hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (eg, praying, counting, repeating words silently) in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly. The behaviors are not a result of the direct physiologic effects of a substance or a general medical condition. •The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation. However, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a way that could realistically neutralize or prevent whatever they are meant to address or they are clearly excessive. Clinical presentation The diagnosis of OCD is mainly done based on clinical history and presentation. It is important to establish the age off onset of the condition. Also, any history of tics must be noted. Common obsessions include safety, contamination, doubting of perception or memory, need for symmetry or order, scrupulosity and unwanted sexual thoughts. Common compulsions include checking, hand washing, cleaning, counting, touching objects and arranging objects. In many cases comorbid conditions like eating disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, impulsive disorders and ADHD can be present. It is important to identify these conditions and also include them in treatment. OCD is frequently associated with Tourette disorder and this condition must be identified and ruled out. Other problems associated with OCD include loss of interpersonal relationships and loss of functioning of the individual (Greenberg, 2011). Etiology The exact cause of OCD is not yet understood. However, there is some evidence that abnormalities in the serotonin neuro-transmission can occur. Other abnormalities include defective dopaminergic transmission and defective glutamatergic abnormalities. Some researchers are of the opinion that an increase in metabolic activity and blood flow in certain regions of brain like thalamus, limbic structures, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex. Thus, OCD symptoms mainly occur due to impairment in the inhibition of specific orbitofrontal-subcortical circuitry that are involved in the regulation of autonomic responses and strong emotions. there is a strong heritability for OCD and this is based on various twin studies. Genes related to dopaminergic, serotonergic and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder
In order to be diagnosed with OCD, an individual must present with recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions that are severe enough to cause marked impairment in everyday functioning. Obsessions are defined as persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are perceived as intrusive or unwarranted, and lead to marked anxiety or distress.
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
These repetitive behaviors or recurring impulsive tendencies are called compulsions, which without cause come as a natural reflex to the afflicted individual. Most obsessive thoughts are centered on things or subjects that a person is not at ease with. An example is an individual who thinks that her house is full of dirt and dust that will trigger her allergies despite the true fact that the house in question is spotless.
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There are a myriad of treatments for OCD including behavioral therapy pharmacological therapy, group therapy, and cognitive therapy. Each therapy differs in terms of its approach and its effectiveness. Some patients may have to try several therapies before finding the one that will work for them so that they will either be able to manage their symptoms or overcome them completely.
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An ideal example is an individual who has immense fear of germs. Such a person will be afraid of opening doors or of shaking people’s hands. It is an ordinary thing for people to check and make sure that door locks have been securely locked, but when a person does this too many times than he or she should, then this might be symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder.
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This is a description of the outstanding features of OCD; anxiety causes behaviors in an attempt to banish the anxiety, obsession with performing these behaviors forms, attempts to suppress the behavior leads to compulsive resistance-and-action behavior, which in turn leads to a struggle to resist the compulsion, and increases anxiety.
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Like many other mental illnesses treatment includes drug therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy or a combination of both. Alternative herbal remedies also seem to have some benefits. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
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The thoughts and actions are uncontrollable even when the individual is aware of them. OCD is one of the common mental disorders with about two percent of the United States of America adults suffering from the disorder. It affects people of all ages including children and
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Normally, a majority of individuals with the OCD disorder do not know that their obsessions are abnormal. This makes such individuals ignore or refrain from repeating
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In most of the time, the affected individuals will be uneasy (Cunningham, 2013). This reaction deems to reduce the anxiety that is linked to the disorder. Apparently, an obsession is stated as an unpleasant thought that a person
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In addition to them, there are also secondary symptoms, such as phobias, depression, sleep disturbances, sexual disturbances, anger, tic disorders etc. For today, specialists have not differentiated the certain causes of OCD; however, the available data
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